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Swarm Optimization-Based Magnetometer Calibration for Personal Handheld Devices
Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
Alastair Ross Technology Centre, Trusted Positioning Inc. (TPI), Calgary, AB T2L 2K7, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 July 2012; in revised form: 10 September 2012 / Accepted: 11 September 2012 / Published: 13 September 2012
Abstract: Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a processor that generates position and orientation solutions by integrating the specific forces and rotation rates. In addition to the accelerometers and gyroscopes, magnetometers can be used to derive the user heading based on Earth’s magnetic field. Unfortunately, the measurements of the magnetic field obtained with low cost sensors are usually corrupted by several errors, including manufacturing defects and external electro-magnetic fields. Consequently, proper calibration of the magnetometer is required to achieve high accuracy heading measurements. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based calibration algorithm is presented to estimate the values of the bias and scale factor of low cost magnetometers. The main advantage of this technique is the use of the artificial intelligence which does not need any error modeling or awareness of the nonlinearity. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can help in the development of Pedestrian Navigation Devices (PNDs) when combined with inertial sensors and GPS/Wi-Fi for indoor navigation and Location Based Services (LBS) applications.
Keywords: artificial intelligence; systems; measurement; navigation; algorithms; sensor
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Ali, A.; Siddharth, S.; Syed, Z.; El-Sheimy, N. Swarm Optimization-Based Magnetometer Calibration for Personal Handheld Devices. Sensors 2012, 12, 12455-12472.
Ali A, Siddharth S, Syed Z, El-Sheimy N. Swarm Optimization-Based Magnetometer Calibration for Personal Handheld Devices. Sensors. 2012; 12(9):12455-12472.
Ali, Abdelrahman; Siddharth, Siddharth; Syed, Zainab; El-Sheimy, Naser. 2012. "Swarm Optimization-Based Magnetometer Calibration for Personal Handheld Devices." Sensors 12, no. 9: 12455-12472.