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Sensors 2012, 12(9), 11957-11965; doi:10.3390/s120911957

Force Monitoring in a Maxilla Model and Dentition Using Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings

1,* , 1
1 Graduate School on Electrical Engineering and Applied Computer Science, Federal University of Technology - Paraná, Curitiba-PR 80230-901, Brazil 2 Electrical Engineering Graduate Program, Federal University of Technology - Paraná, Pato Branco-PR 85503-390, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2012 / Revised: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 August 2012 / Published: 29 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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The aim of this work is to show the possibility of using fiber optic sensors to instrument inside parts of an artificial maxilla and measure internal tension transmitted by the orthodontic and orthopedic appliances to the dentition and the adjacent bone. Bragg gratings written in a standard optical fiber were used to monitor the maxillary teeth and a multiplexed fiber was used to monitor the surface of the maxillary bone, transversally to the longest axis of the teeth. A Universal Test Machine was used to evaluate the sensitivity of the sensor to the vertical and lateral forces applied on the teeth. A wavelength shift of approximately 0.30 nm was detected when applying loads ranging from 0 to 20 N. By applying forces using the standard orthodontic appliances installed on the dentition it was possible to detect a range of forces between 0.025 N to 0.035 N during the activation of the arch wire and extra-oral forces. The use of the internal sensors in an artificial model made possible the monitoring of the resulting forces on the internal parts of the teeth and at the position where the strain takes place within the maxilla. The sensors detected that the orthodontic forces were not transmitted to the surface of the maxilla. This information is important to elucidate and to correlate undesirable effects as tooth root absorption and local pain during the orthodontic treatment.
Keywords: orthodontic forces; maxilla; fiber Bragg gratings; optical fiber sensors orthodontic forces; maxilla; fiber Bragg gratings; optical fiber sensors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Milczewski, M.S.; da Silva, J.C.C.; Martelli, C.; Grabarski, L.; Abe, I.; Kalinowski, H.J. Force Monitoring in a Maxilla Model and Dentition Using Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings. Sensors 2012, 12, 11957-11965.

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