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Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine
Institute for Photonics & Advanced Sensing and School of Chemistry & Physics, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 June 2012; in revised form: 24 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 6 August 2012
Abstract: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring.
Keywords: sulfur dioxide; potassium (sodium) metabisulfite; wine; microstructured optical fiber; sensors; wine sensing; pararosaniline
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Monro, T.M.; Moore, R.L.; Nguyen, M.-C.; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.; Skouroumounis, G.K.; Elsey, G.M.; Taylor, D.K. Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine. Sensors 2012, 12, 10759-10773.
Monro TM, Moore RL, Nguyen M-C, Ebendorff-Heidepriem H, Skouroumounis GK, Elsey GM, Taylor DK. Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine. Sensors. 2012; 12(8):10759-10773.
Monro, Tanya M.; Moore, Rachel L.; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K.; Elsey, Gordon M.; Taylor, Dennis K. 2012. "Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine." Sensors 12, no. 8: 10759-10773.