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CMOS Cell Sensors for Point-of-Care Diagnostics
Sensors 2012, 12(8), 10566-10583; doi:10.3390/s120810566
Article

Numerical and Experimental Study on the Development of Electric Sensor as for Measurement of Red Blood Cell Deformability in Microchannels

* ,
,
 and
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 May 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nano Technologies for Point-of-Care Diagnosis)
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Abstract

A microsensor that can continuously measure the deformability of a single red blood cell (RBC) in its microchannels using microelectrodes is described in this paper. The time series of the electric resistance is measured using an AC current vs. voltage method as the RBC passes between counter-electrode-type micro-membrane sensors attached to the bottom wall of the microchannel. The RBC is deformed by the shear flow created in the microchannel; the degree of deformation depends on the elastic modulus of the RBC. The resistance distribution, which is unique to the shape of the RBC, is analyzed to obtain the deformability of each cell. First, a numerical simulation of the electric field around the electrodes and RBC is carried out to evaluate the influences of the RBC height position, channel height, distance between the electrodes, electrode width, and RBC shape on the sensor sensitivity. Then, a microsensor was designed and fabricated on the basis of the numerical results. Resistance measurement was carried out using samples of normal RBCs and rigidified (Ca2+-A23186 treated) RBCs. Visualization measurement of the cells’ behavior was carried out using a high-speed camera, and the results were compared with those obtained above to evaluate the performance of the sensor.
Keywords: red blood cell; deformability; microchannel; electric sensor; laminar flow; shear stress; Ca2+ ionophore treatment; Micro-TAS red blood cell; deformability; microchannel; electric sensor; laminar flow; shear stress; Ca2+ ionophore treatment; Micro-TAS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Tatsumi, K.; Katsumoto, Y.; Fujiwara, R.; Nakabe, K. Numerical and Experimental Study on the Development of Electric Sensor as for Measurement of Red Blood Cell Deformability in Microchannels. Sensors 2012, 12, 10566-10583.

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