Sensors 2012, 12(8), 10067-10085; doi:10.3390/s120810067
Article

Low-Voltage 96 dB Snapshot CMOS Image Sensor with 4.5 nW Power Dissipation per Pixel

Received: 21 May 2012; in revised form: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 13 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Modern “smart” CMOS sensors have penetrated into various applications, such as surveillance systems, bio-medical applications, digital cameras, cellular phones and many others. Reducing the power of these sensors continuously challenges designers. In this paper, a low power global shutter CMOS image sensor with Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) ability is presented. This sensor features several power reduction techniques, including a dual voltage supply, a selective power down, transistors with different threshold voltages, a non-rationed logic, and a low voltage static memory. A combination of all these approaches has enabled the design of the low voltage “smart” image sensor, which is capable of reaching a remarkable dynamic range, while consuming very low power. The proposed power-saving solutions have allowed the maintenance of the standard architecture of the sensor, reducing both the time and the cost of the design. In order to maintain the image quality, a relation between the sensor performance and power has been analyzed and a mathematical model, describing the sensor Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Dynamic Range (DR) as a function of the power supplies, is proposed. The described sensor was implemented in a 0.18 um CMOS process and successfully tested in the laboratory. An SNR of 48 dB and DR of 96 dB were achieved with a power dissipation of 4.5 nW per pixel.
Keywords: CMOS; image sensor; low power; snapshot; SNR; strong inversion; sub-threshold; wide dynamic range
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MDPI and ACS Style

Spivak, A.; Teman, A.; Belenky, A.; Yadid-Pecht, O.; Fish, A. Low-Voltage 96 dB Snapshot CMOS Image Sensor with 4.5 nW Power Dissipation per Pixel. Sensors 2012, 12, 10067-10085.

AMA Style

Spivak A, Teman A, Belenky A, Yadid-Pecht O, Fish A. Low-Voltage 96 dB Snapshot CMOS Image Sensor with 4.5 nW Power Dissipation per Pixel. Sensors. 2012; 12(8):10067-10085.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Spivak, Arthur; Teman, Adam; Belenky, Alexander; Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Fish, Alexander. 2012. "Low-Voltage 96 dB Snapshot CMOS Image Sensor with 4.5 nW Power Dissipation per Pixel." Sensors 12, no. 8: 10067-10085.

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