Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9423-9447; doi:10.3390/s120709423

A Fully Sensorized Cooperative Robotic System for Surgical Interventions

1 Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Henkestr. 91, 91052 Erlangen, Germany 2 Informatics Faculty, Autonomous University of Querétaro, Avenida de las ciencias s/n, Juriquilla, Querétaro, Qro. C.P. 76230, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2012; in revised form: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 3 July 2012 / Published: 9 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract: In this research a fully sensorized cooperative robot system for manipulation of needles is presented. The setup consists of a DLR/KUKA Light Weight Robot III especially designed for safe human/robot interaction, a FD-CT robot-driven angiographic C-arm system, and a navigation camera. Also, new control strategies for robot manipulation in the clinical environment are introduced. A method for fast calibration of the involved components and the preliminary accuracy tests of the whole possible errors chain are presented. Calibration of the robot with the navigation system has a residual error of 0.81 mm (rms) with a standard deviation of ±0.41 mm. The accuracy of the robotic system while targeting fixed points at different positions within the workspace is of 1.2 mm (rms) with a standard deviation of ±0.4 mm. After calibration, and due to close loop control, the absolute positioning accuracy was reduced to the navigation camera accuracy which is of 0.35 mm (rms). The implemented control allows the robot to compensate for small patient movements.
Keywords: surgical robotics; robotic needle-placement; robot-driven C-arm; light-weight robot

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tovar-Arriaga, S.; Vargas, J.E.; Ramos, J.M.; Aceves, M.A.; Gorrostieta, E.; Kalender, W.A. A Fully Sensorized Cooperative Robotic System for Surgical Interventions. Sensors 2012, 12, 9423-9447.

AMA Style

Tovar-Arriaga S, Vargas JE, Ramos JM, Aceves MA, Gorrostieta E, Kalender WA. A Fully Sensorized Cooperative Robotic System for Surgical Interventions. Sensors. 2012; 12(7):9423-9447.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tovar-Arriaga, Saúl; Vargas, José Emilio; Ramos, Juan M.; Aceves, Marco A.; Gorrostieta, Efren; Kalender, Willi A. 2012. "A Fully Sensorized Cooperative Robotic System for Surgical Interventions." Sensors 12, no. 7: 9423-9447.

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