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Sensors 2012, 12(7), 8491-8506; doi:10.3390/s120708491
Article

Variable-State-Dimension Kalman-Based Filter for Orientation Determination Using Inertial and Magnetic Sensors

Received: 18 May 2012; in revised form: 8 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 25 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy 2012)
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Abstract: In this paper a quaternion-based Variable-State-Dimension Extended Kalman Filter (VSD-EKF) is developed for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body using the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) integrated with a triaxial magnetic sensor. Gyro bias and magnetic disturbances are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. The VSD-EKF switches between a quiescent EKF, where the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a first-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-1), and a higher-order EKF where extra state components are introduced to model the time-rate of change of the magnetic field as a GM-1 stochastic process, namely the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a second-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-2). Experimental validation tests show the effectiveness of the VSD-EKF, as compared to either the quiescent EKF or the higher-order EKF when they run separately.
Keywords: inertial/magnetic sensing; sensor fusion; orientation determination; Kalman filters inertial/magnetic sensing; sensor fusion; orientation determination; Kalman filters
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sabatini, A.M. Variable-State-Dimension Kalman-Based Filter for Orientation Determination Using Inertial and Magnetic Sensors. Sensors 2012, 12, 8491-8506.

AMA Style

Sabatini AM. Variable-State-Dimension Kalman-Based Filter for Orientation Determination Using Inertial and Magnetic Sensors. Sensors. 2012; 12(7):8491-8506.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sabatini, Angelo Maria. 2012. "Variable-State-Dimension Kalman-Based Filter for Orientation Determination Using Inertial and Magnetic Sensors." Sensors 12, no. 7: 8491-8506.



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