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Sensors 2012, 12(7), 8491-8506; doi:10.3390/s120708491
Article

Variable-State-Dimension Kalman-Based Filter for Orientation Determination Using Inertial and Magnetic Sensors

The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Piazza Martiri della Libertà 33, Pisa 56127, Italy
Received: 18 May 2012 / Revised: 8 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 25 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy 2012)
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Abstract

In this paper a quaternion-based Variable-State-Dimension Extended Kalman Filter (VSD-EKF) is developed for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body using the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) integrated with a triaxial magnetic sensor. Gyro bias and magnetic disturbances are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. The VSD-EKF switches between a quiescent EKF, where the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a first-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-1), and a higher-order EKF where extra state components are introduced to model the time-rate of change of the magnetic field as a GM-1 stochastic process, namely the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a second-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-2). Experimental validation tests show the effectiveness of the VSD-EKF, as compared to either the quiescent EKF or the higher-order EKF when they run separately.
Keywords: inertial/magnetic sensing; sensor fusion; orientation determination; Kalman filters inertial/magnetic sensing; sensor fusion; orientation determination; Kalman filters
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Sabatini, A.M. Variable-State-Dimension Kalman-Based Filter for Orientation Determination Using Inertial and Magnetic Sensors. Sensors 2012, 12, 8491-8506.

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