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Sensors 2012, 12(6), 6764-6801; doi:10.3390/s120606764
Article

Enhancing Positioning Accuracy in Urban Terrain by Fusing Data from a GPS Receiver, Inertial Sensors, Stereo-Camera and Digital Maps for Pedestrian Navigation

*  and
Institute of Electronics, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska 211/215, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 March 2012 / Revised: 19 April 2012 / Accepted: 29 April 2012 / Published: 25 May 2012

Abstract

The paper presents an algorithm for estimating a pedestrian location in an urban environment. The algorithm is based on the particle filter and uses different data sources: a GPS receiver, inertial sensors, probability maps and a stereo camera. Inertial sensors are used to estimate a relative displacement of a pedestrian. A gyroscope estimates a change in the heading direction. An accelerometer is used to count a pedestrian’s steps and their lengths. The so-called probability maps help to limit GPS inaccuracy by imposing constraints on pedestrian kinematics, e.g., it is assumed that a pedestrian cannot cross buildings, fences etc. This limits position inaccuracy to ca. 10 m. Incorporation of depth estimates derived from a stereo camera that are compared to the 3D model of an environment has enabled further reduction of positioning errors. As a result, for 90% of the time, the algorithm is able to estimate a pedestrian location with an error smaller than 2 m, compared to an error of 6.5 m for a navigation based solely on GPS.
Keywords: particle filtering; stereovision; digital maps; GPS; Monte Carlo; dead reckoning particle filtering; stereovision; digital maps; GPS; Monte Carlo; dead reckoning
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Baranski, P.; Strumillo, P. Enhancing Positioning Accuracy in Urban Terrain by Fusing Data from a GPS Receiver, Inertial Sensors, Stereo-Camera and Digital Maps for Pedestrian Navigation. Sensors 2012, 12, 6764-6801.

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