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Sensors 2012, 12(4), 5047-5066; doi:10.3390/s120405047

Identification of Cross-Country Skiing Movement Patterns Using Micro-Sensors

1,* , 1
1 University of Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia 2 Australian Institute of Sport, Leverrier Crescent, Bruce, ACT 2617, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 March 2012 / Revised: 5 April 2012 / Accepted: 9 April 2012 / Published: 18 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)


This study investigated the potential of micro-sensors for use in the identification of the main movement patterns used in cross-country skiing. Data were collected from four elite international and four Australian athletes in Europe and in Australia using a MinimaxXTM unit containing accelerometer, gyroscope and GPS sensors. Athletes performed four skating techniques and three classical techniques on snow at moderate velocity. Data from a single micro-sensor unit positioned in the centre of the upper back was sufficient to visually identify cyclical movement patterns for each technique. The general patterns for each technique were identified clearly across all athletes while at the same time distinctive characteristics for individual athletes were observed. Differences in speed, snow condition and gradient of terrain were not controlled in this study and these factors could have an effect on the data patterns. Development of algorithms to process the micro-sensor data into kinematic measurements would provide coaches and scientists with a valuable performance analysis tool. Further research is needed to develop such algorithms and to determine whether the patterns are consistent across a range of different speeds, snow conditions and terrain, and for skiers of differing ability.
Keywords: accelerometer; gyroscope; kinematics; technique analysis accelerometer; gyroscope; kinematics; technique analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Marsland, F.; Lyons, K.; Anson, J.; Waddington, G.; Macintosh, C.; Chapman, D. Identification of Cross-Country Skiing Movement Patterns Using Micro-Sensors. Sensors 2012, 12, 5047-5066.

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