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Sensors 2012, 12(4), 4974-4985; doi:10.3390/s120404974
Review

Endogenous Bioactive Peptides as Potential Biomarkers for Atherosclerotic Coronary Heart Disease

1,* , 1
, 1
, 2
, 3
 and 4
Received: 8 February 2012; in revised form: 22 March 2012 / Accepted: 16 April 2012 / Published: 18 April 2012
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Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, with high medical costs and rates of disability. It is therefore important to evaluate the use of cardiovascular biomarkers in the early diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). We have screened a variety of recently identified bioactive peptides candidates in anticipation that they would allow detection of atherosclerotic CAD. Especially, we have focused on novel anti-atherogenic peptides as indicators and negative risk factors for CAD. In vitro, in vivo and clinical studies indicated that human adiponectin, heregulin-β1, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and salusin-α, peptides of 244, 71, 30, and 28 amino acids, respectively, attenuate the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions by suppressing macrophage foam cell formation via down-regulation of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1. Circulating levels of these peptides in the blood are significantly decreased in patients with CAD compared to patients without CAD. Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that salusin-α is a more useful biomarker, with better sensitivity and specificity, compared with the others for detecting CAD. Therefore, salusin-α, heregulin-β1, adiponectin, and/or GLP-1, alone or in various combinations, may be useful as biomarkers for atherosclerotic CAD.
Keywords: acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1; adiponectin; atherosclerosis; biomarker; coronary artery disease; glucagon-like peptide-1; heregulin-β1; macrophage, salusin-α acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1; adiponectin; atherosclerosis; biomarker; coronary artery disease; glucagon-like peptide-1; heregulin-β1; macrophage, salusin-α
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Watanabe, T.; Sato, K.; Itoh, F.; Wakabayashi, K.; Shichiri, M.; Hirano, T. Endogenous Bioactive Peptides as Potential Biomarkers for Atherosclerotic Coronary Heart Disease. Sensors 2012, 12, 4974-4985.

AMA Style

Watanabe T, Sato K, Itoh F, Wakabayashi K, Shichiri M, Hirano T. Endogenous Bioactive Peptides as Potential Biomarkers for Atherosclerotic Coronary Heart Disease. Sensors. 2012; 12(4):4974-4985.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Watanabe, Takuya; Sato, Kengo; Itoh, Fumiko; Wakabayashi, Kohei; Shichiri, Masayoshi; Hirano, Tsutomu. 2012. "Endogenous Bioactive Peptides as Potential Biomarkers for Atherosclerotic Coronary Heart Disease." Sensors 12, no. 4: 4974-4985.



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