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Sensors 2012, 12(4), 4952-4961; doi:10.3390/s120404952
Article

Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Peptides for Specific Affinity Aggregation Assays of Estrogen Receptors and Their Agonists

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Received: 26 March 2012; in revised form: 9 April 2012 / Accepted: 16 April 2012 / Published: 18 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract: Nuclear receptors regulate the transcription of genes and various functions such as development, differentiation, homeostasis, and behavior by formation of complexes with ligand and co-activator. Recent findings have shown that agonists of a ligand may have a toxic effect on cellular/tissular function through improper activation of nuclear receptors. In this study, a simple assay system of hetero-complexes of three different molecules (estrogen receptor, ligand, and co-activator peptide) has been developed. This assay system employs functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs: 15 nm in diameter). The surfaces of the GNPs were modified by a 12- or 20-amino-acid peptide that contains the sequence of co-activator for activating nuclear receptor by an agonist ligand. Owing to the affinity of the peptide, the functionalized GNPs aggregate faster when the nuclear receptor and the agonist ligand are also present. The aggregation of GNPs can be identified by shifts in adsorption spectrum, which give information about the specificity of agonist ligands. Similarly, this spectrum shift can measure concentration of known agonist ligand. This simple agonist screening will be employed as high through-put analysis (HTA) in the discovery of drugs that act through nuclear receptors.
Keywords: estrogen receptor; gold nanoparticles; high-throughput screening; SRC1 peptide estrogen receptor; gold nanoparticles; high-throughput screening; SRC1 peptide
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Takatsuji, Y.; Ikeno, S.; Haruyama, T. Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Peptides for Specific Affinity Aggregation Assays of Estrogen Receptors and Their Agonists. Sensors 2012, 12, 4952-4961.

AMA Style

Takatsuji Y, Ikeno S, Haruyama T. Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Peptides for Specific Affinity Aggregation Assays of Estrogen Receptors and Their Agonists. Sensors. 2012; 12(4):4952-4961.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Takatsuji, Yoshiyuki; Ikeno, Shinya; Haruyama, Tetsuya. 2012. "Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Peptides for Specific Affinity Aggregation Assays of Estrogen Receptors and Their Agonists." Sensors 12, no. 4: 4952-4961.


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