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Underwater Wireless Sensor Communications in the 2.4 GHz ISM Frequency Band
Integrated Management Coastal Research Institute, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, C/Paranimf, n° 1, Grao de Gandia 46730, Spain
Instituto de Telecomunicações, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d'Ávila e Bolama 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 February 2012; in revised form: 19 March 2012 / Accepted: 26 March 2012 / Published: 28 March 2012
Abstract: One of the main problems in underwater communications is the low data rate available due to the use of low frequencies. Moreover, there are many problems inherent to the medium such as reflections, refraction, energy dispersion, etc., that greatly degrade communication between devices. In some cases, wireless sensors must be placed quite close to each other in order to take more accurate measurements from the water while having high communication bandwidth. In these cases, while most researchers focus their efforts on increasing the data rate for low frequencies, we propose the use of the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band in these special cases. In this paper, we show our wireless sensor node deployment and its performance obtained from a real scenario and measures taken for different frequencies, modulations and data transfer rates. The performed tests show the maximum distance between sensors, the number of lost packets and the average round trip time. Based on our measurements, we provide some experimental models of underwater communication in fresh water using EM waves in the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band. Finally, we compare our communication system proposal with the existing systems. Although our proposal provides short communication distances, it provides high data transfer rates. It can be used for precision monitoring in applications such as contaminated ecosystems or for device communicate at high depth.
Keywords: Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN); underwater communication; 2.4 GHz; high data rates; electromagnetic waves
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MDPI and ACS Style
Lloret, J.; Sendra, S.; Ardid, M.; Rodrigues, J.J.P.C. Underwater Wireless Sensor Communications in the 2.4 GHz ISM Frequency Band. Sensors 2012, 12, 4237-4264.
Lloret J, Sendra S, Ardid M, Rodrigues JJPC. Underwater Wireless Sensor Communications in the 2.4 GHz ISM Frequency Band. Sensors. 2012; 12(4):4237-4264.
Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Ardid, Miguel; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C. 2012. "Underwater Wireless Sensor Communications in the 2.4 GHz ISM Frequency Band." Sensors 12, no. 4: 4237-4264.