Sensors 2012, 12(4), 4237-4264; doi:10.3390/s120404237

Underwater Wireless Sensor Communications in the 2.4 GHz ISM Frequency Band

1,* email, 1email, 1email and 2email
Received: 20 February 2012; in revised form: 19 March 2012 / Accepted: 26 March 2012 / Published: 28 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: One of the main problems in underwater communications is the low data rate available due to the use of low frequencies. Moreover, there are many problems inherent to the medium such as reflections, refraction, energy dispersion, etc., that greatly degrade communication between devices. In some cases, wireless sensors must be placed quite close to each other in order to take more accurate measurements from the water while having high communication bandwidth. In these cases, while most researchers focus their efforts on increasing the data rate for low frequencies, we propose the use of the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band in these special cases. In this paper, we show our wireless sensor node deployment and its performance obtained from a real scenario and measures taken for different frequencies, modulations and data transfer rates. The performed tests show the maximum distance between sensors, the number of lost packets and the average round trip time. Based on our measurements, we provide some experimental models of underwater communication in fresh water using EM waves in the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band. Finally, we compare our communication system proposal with the existing systems. Although our proposal provides short communication distances, it provides high data transfer rates. It can be used for precision monitoring in applications such as contaminated ecosystems or for device communicate at high depth.
Keywords: Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN); underwater communication; 2.4 GHz; high data rates; electromagnetic waves
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lloret, J.; Sendra, S.; Ardid, M.; Rodrigues, J.J.P.C. Underwater Wireless Sensor Communications in the 2.4 GHz ISM Frequency Band. Sensors 2012, 12, 4237-4264.

AMA Style

Lloret J, Sendra S, Ardid M, Rodrigues JJPC. Underwater Wireless Sensor Communications in the 2.4 GHz ISM Frequency Band. Sensors. 2012; 12(4):4237-4264.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Ardid, Miguel; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C. 2012. "Underwater Wireless Sensor Communications in the 2.4 GHz ISM Frequency Band." Sensors 12, no. 4: 4237-4264.

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