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Sensors 2012, 12(4), 4113-4132; doi:10.3390/s120404113
Article

Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes

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Received: 29 February 2012; in revised form: 20 March 2012 / Accepted: 22 March 2012 / Published: 27 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Abstract: In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars), high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to achieve the proposed aim. The developed compact array has practical features such as easy manageability and operation. The prototype designs and the results of different tests are described. The techniques applied for these two acoustic systems are so powerful and versatile that may be of interest in other marine applications using acoustic transmitters.
Keywords: acoustic transceiver; sensor array; underwater neutrino telescopes; calibration; positioning systems; parametric sources acoustic transceiver; sensor array; underwater neutrino telescopes; calibration; positioning systems; parametric sources
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ardid, M.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Larosa, G.; Adrián-Martínez, S.; Llorens, C.D. Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes. Sensors 2012, 12, 4113-4132.

AMA Style

Ardid M, Martínez-Mora JA, Bou-Cabo M, Larosa G, Adrián-Martínez S, Llorens CD. Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes. Sensors. 2012; 12(4):4113-4132.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ardid, Miguel; Martínez-Mora, Juan A.; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Larosa, Giuseppina; Adrián-Martínez, Silvia; Llorens, Carlos D. 2012. "Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes." Sensors 12, no. 4: 4113-4132.


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