Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3359-3369; doi:10.3390/s120303359
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Circulating microRNAs as Biomarkers, Therapeutic Targets, and Signaling Molecules

Received: 16 February 2012; in revised form: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 8 March 2012
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of post-transcriptional gene regulation and have altered the prevailing view of a linear relationship between gene and protein expression. Aberrant miRNA expression is an emerging theme for a wide variety of diseases, highlighting the fundamental role played by miRNAs in both physiological and pathological states. The identification of stable miRNAs in bodily fluids paved the way for their use as novel biomarkers amenable to clinical diagnosis in translational medicine. Identification of miRNAs in exosomes that are functional upon delivery to the recipient cells has highlighted a novel method of intercellular communication. Delivery of miRNAs to recipient cells via blood, with functional gene regulatory consequences, opens up novel avenues for target intervention. Exosomes thus offer a novel strategy for delivering drugs or RNA therapeutic agents. Though much work lies ahead, circulating miRNAs are unequivocally ushering in a new era of novel biomarker discovery, intercellular communication mechanisms, and therapeutic intervention strategies.
Keywords: microRNA; biomarker; exosome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ajit, S.K. Circulating microRNAs as Biomarkers, Therapeutic Targets, and Signaling Molecules. Sensors 2012, 12, 3359-3369.

AMA Style

Ajit SK. Circulating microRNAs as Biomarkers, Therapeutic Targets, and Signaling Molecules. Sensors. 2012; 12(3):3359-3369.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ajit, Seena K. 2012. "Circulating microRNAs as Biomarkers, Therapeutic Targets, and Signaling Molecules." Sensors 12, no. 3: 3359-3369.

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