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Sensors 2012, 12(3), 2467-2486; doi:10.3390/s120302467

Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors

School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 123 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712, Korea
Korea Photonics Technology Institute, Cheomdanbencheo-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-779, Korea
Medical Device Development Center, Osong Medical Innovation Foundation, 186 Osong Saengmyung-ro, Gangoe-myeon, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-951, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 January 2012 / Revised: 6 February 2012 / Accepted: 6 February 2012 / Published: 23 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Fiber Sensors 2012)
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Fiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG) is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.
Keywords: fiber-optic sensors; fiber interferometers; Fabry-Perot interferometers; Mach-Zehnder interferometers; Michelson interferometers; Sagnac interferometers fiber-optic sensors; fiber interferometers; Fabry-Perot interferometers; Mach-Zehnder interferometers; Michelson interferometers; Sagnac interferometers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, B.H.; Kim, Y.H.; Park, K.S.; Eom, J.B.; Kim, M.J.; Rho, B.S.; Choi, H.Y. Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors. Sensors 2012, 12, 2467-2486.

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