Sensors 2012, 12(12), 16937-16953; doi:10.3390/s121216937

Detecting Driver Drowsiness Based on Sensors: A Review

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Received: 27 September 2012; in revised form: 22 November 2012 / Accepted: 2 December 2012 / Published: 7 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: In recent years, driver drowsiness has been one of the major causes of road accidents and can lead to severe physical injuries, deaths and significant economic losses. Statistics indicate the need of a reliable driver drowsiness detection system which could alert the driver before a mishap happens. Researchers have attempted to determine driver drowsiness using the following measures: (1) vehicle-based measures; (2) behavioral measures and (3) physiological measures. A detailed review on these measures will provide insight on the present systems, issues associated with them and the enhancements that need to be done to make a robust system. In this paper, we review these three measures as to the sensors used and discuss the advantages and limitations of each. The various ways through which drowsiness has been experimentally manipulated is also discussed. We conclude that by designing a hybrid drowsiness detection system that combines non-intusive physiological measures with other measures one would accurately determine the drowsiness level of a driver. A number of road accidents might then be avoided if an alert is sent to a driver that is deemed drowsy.
Keywords: driver drowsiness detection; transportation safety; hybrid measures; driver fatigue; artificial intelligence techniques; sensor fusion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sahayadhas, A.; Sundaraj, K.; Murugappan, M. Detecting Driver Drowsiness Based on Sensors: A Review. Sensors 2012, 12, 16937-16953.

AMA Style

Sahayadhas A, Sundaraj K, Murugappan M. Detecting Driver Drowsiness Based on Sensors: A Review. Sensors. 2012; 12(12):16937-16953.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sahayadhas, Arun; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Murugappan, Murugappan. 2012. "Detecting Driver Drowsiness Based on Sensors: A Review." Sensors 12, no. 12: 16937-16953.

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