Sensors 2012, 12(10), 13508-13544; doi:10.3390/s121013508
Review

Fundamental Lifetime Mechanisms in Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

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Received: 22 May 2012; in revised form: 13 August 2012 / Accepted: 28 September 2012 / Published: 9 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks basically consist of low cost sensor nodes which collect data from environment and relay them to a sink, where they will be subsequently processed. Since wireless nodes are severely power-constrained, the major concern is how to conserve the nodes’ energy so that network lifetime can be extended significantly. Employing one static sink can rapidly exhaust the energy of sink neighbors. Furthermore, using a non-optimal single path together with a maximum transmission power level may quickly deplete the energy of individual nodes on the route. This all results in unbalanced energy consumption through the sensor field, and hence a negative effect on the network lifetime. In this paper, we present a comprehensive taxonomy of the various mechanisms applied for increasing the network lifetime. These techniques, whether in the routing or cross-layer area, fall within the following types: multi-sink, mobile sink, multi-path, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, depending on the protocol operation. In this taxonomy, special attention has been devoted to the multi-sink, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, which have not yet received much consideration in the literature. Moreover, each class covers a variety of the state-of-the-art protocols, which should provide ideas for potential future works. Finally, we compare these mechanisms and discuss open research issues.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks (WSNs); network lifetime; energy-efficiency; multi-path; multi-sink; mobile sink; power control; bio-inspired protocols
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eslaminejad, M.; Razak, S.A. Fundamental Lifetime Mechanisms in Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues. Sensors 2012, 12, 13508-13544.

AMA Style

Eslaminejad M, Razak SA. Fundamental Lifetime Mechanisms in Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues. Sensors. 2012; 12(10):13508-13544.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Razak, Shukor Abd. 2012. "Fundamental Lifetime Mechanisms in Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues." Sensors 12, no. 10: 13508-13544.

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