Next Article in Journal
A TDR-Based Soil Moisture Monitoring System with Simultaneous Measurement of Soil Temperature and Electrical Conductivity
Previous Article in Journal
Context-Aware Mobile Collaborative Systems: Conceptual Modeling and Case Study
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Sensors 2012, 12(10), 13508-13544; doi:10.3390/s121013508

Fundamental Lifetime Mechanisms in Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

Faculty of Computer Science and Information Systems, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor 81310, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 May 2012 / Revised: 13 August 2012 / Accepted: 28 September 2012 / Published: 9 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1134 KB, 21 June 2014; original version 21 June 2014]   |  

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks basically consist of low cost sensor nodes which collect data from environment and relay them to a sink, where they will be subsequently processed. Since wireless nodes are severely power-constrained, the major concern is how to conserve the nodes’ energy so that network lifetime can be extended significantly. Employing one static sink can rapidly exhaust the energy of sink neighbors. Furthermore, using a non-optimal single path together with a maximum transmission power level may quickly deplete the energy of individual nodes on the route. This all results in unbalanced energy consumption through the sensor field, and hence a negative effect on the network lifetime. In this paper, we present a comprehensive taxonomy of the various mechanisms applied for increasing the network lifetime. These techniques, whether in the routing or cross-layer area, fall within the following types: multi-sink, mobile sink, multi-path, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, depending on the protocol operation. In this taxonomy, special attention has been devoted to the multi-sink, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, which have not yet received much consideration in the literature. Moreover, each class covers a variety of the state-of-the-art protocols, which should provide ideas for potential future works. Finally, we compare these mechanisms and discuss open research issues. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks (WSNs); network lifetime; energy-efficiency; multi-path; multi-sink; mobile sink; power control; bio-inspired protocols wireless sensor networks (WSNs); network lifetime; energy-efficiency; multi-path; multi-sink; mobile sink; power control; bio-inspired protocols
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Eslaminejad, M.; Razak, S.A. Fundamental Lifetime Mechanisms in Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues. Sensors 2012, 12, 13508-13544.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top