Sensors 2011, 11(6), 5661-5676; doi:10.3390/s110605661
Article

A Cabled Acoustic Telemetry System for Detecting and Tracking Juvenile Salmon: Part 2. Three-Dimensional Tracking and Passage Outcomes

1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99332, USA 2 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, P.O. Box 2946, Portland, OR 97208, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 March 2011; in revised form: 20 May 2011 / Accepted: 23 May 2011 / Published: 26 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract: In Part 1 of this paper, we presented the engineering design and instrumentation of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) cabled system, a nonproprietary sensing technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (Oregon, USA) to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through the hydroelectric facilities within the Federal Columbia River Power System. Here in Part 2, we describe how the JSATS cabled system was employed as a reference sensor network for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon. Time-of-arrival data for valid detections on four hydrophones were used to solve for the three-dimensional (3D) position of fish surgically implanted with JSATS acoustic transmitters. Validation tests demonstrated high accuracy of 3D tracking up to 100 m upstream from the John Day Dam spillway. The along-dam component, used for assigning the route of fish passage, had the highest accuracy; the median errors ranged from 0.02 to 0.22 m, and root mean square errors ranged from 0.07 to 0.56 m at distances up to 100 m. For the 2008 case study at John Day Dam, the range for 3D tracking was more than 100 m upstream of the dam face where hydrophones were deployed, and detection and tracking probabilities of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters were higher than 98%. JSATS cabled systems have been successfully deployed on several major dams to acquire information for salmon protection and for development of more “fish-friendly” hydroelectric facilities.
Keywords: acoustic tracking; underwater acoustic sensors; acoustic telemetry

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MDPI and ACS Style

Deng, Z.D.; Weiland, M.A.; Fu, T.; Seim, T.A.; LaMarche, B.L.; Choi, E.Y.; Carlson, T.J.; Eppard, M.B. A Cabled Acoustic Telemetry System for Detecting and Tracking Juvenile Salmon: Part 2. Three-Dimensional Tracking and Passage Outcomes. Sensors 2011, 11, 5661-5676.

AMA Style

Deng ZD, Weiland MA, Fu T, Seim TA, LaMarche BL, Choi EY, Carlson TJ, Eppard MB. A Cabled Acoustic Telemetry System for Detecting and Tracking Juvenile Salmon: Part 2. Three-Dimensional Tracking and Passage Outcomes. Sensors. 2011; 11(6):5661-5676.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deng, Z. Daniel; Weiland, Mark A.; Fu, Tao; Seim, Tom A.; LaMarche, Brian L.; Choi, Eric Y.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, M. Brad. 2011. "A Cabled Acoustic Telemetry System for Detecting and Tracking Juvenile Salmon: Part 2. Three-Dimensional Tracking and Passage Outcomes." Sensors 11, no. 6: 5661-5676.

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