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NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) Coatings on Gold Sensors—a QCM Study of Hemocompatibility
Clinical Research Laboratory, Department of Congenital & Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Children’s University Hospital, Tuebingen University, Calwerstr 7/1, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Section Medical Materials and Technology, Tuebingen University, Osianderstrasse 2-8, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
Biosensor Research Group, Institute of Clinical and Experimental Transfusion Medicine, Tuebingen University, Germany
DWI e.V. and Institute of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 8, D-52056 Aachen, Germany
Department of Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Pleicherwall 2, D-97070 Wuerzburg, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 March 2011; in revised form: 19 April 2011 / Accepted: 9 May 2011 / Published: 13 May 2011
Abstract: The reliability of implantable blood sensors is often hampered by unspecific adsorption of plasma proteins and blood cells. This not only leads to a loss of sensor signal over time, but can also result in undesired host vs. graft reactions. Within this study we evaluated the hemocompatibility of isocyanate conjugated star shaped polytheylene oxide—polypropylene oxide co-polymers NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) when applied to gold surfaces as an auspicious coating material for gold sputtered blood contacting sensors. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors were coated with ultrathin NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) films and compared with uncoated gold sensors. Protein resistance was assessed by QCM measurements with fibrinogen solution and platelet poor plasma (PPP), followed by quantification of fibrinogen adsorption. Hemocompatibility was tested by incubation with human platelet rich plasma (PRP). Thrombin antithrombin-III complex (TAT), β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) were used as coagulation activation markers. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualize platelet adhesion to the sensor surfaces. Compared to uncoated gold sensors, NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) coated sensors revealed significant better resistance against protein adsorption, lower TAT generation and a lower amount of adherent platelets. Moreover, coating with ultrathin NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) films creates a cell resistant hemocompatible surface on gold that increases the chance of prolonged sensor functionality and can easily be modified with specific receptor molecules.
Keywords: surface coating; biosensors; hemocompatibility; QCM; protein adsorption
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Sinn, S.; Eichler, M.; Müller, L.; Bünger, D.; Groll, J.; Ziemer, G.; Rupp, F.; Northoff, H.; Geis-Gerstorfer, J.; Gehring, F.K.; Wendel, H.P. NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) Coatings on Gold Sensors—a QCM Study of Hemocompatibility. Sensors 2011, 11, 5253-5269.
Sinn S, Eichler M, Müller L, Bünger D, Groll J, Ziemer G, Rupp F, Northoff H, Geis-Gerstorfer J, Gehring FK, Wendel HP. NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) Coatings on Gold Sensors—a QCM Study of Hemocompatibility. Sensors. 2011; 11(5):5253-5269.
Sinn, Stefan; Eichler, Mirjam; Müller, Lothar; Bünger, Daniel; Groll, Jürgen; Ziemer, Gerhard; Rupp, Frank; Northoff, Hinnak; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Gehring, Frank K.; Wendel, Hans P. 2011. "NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) Coatings on Gold Sensors—a QCM Study of Hemocompatibility." Sensors 11, no. 5: 5253-5269.