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Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4358-4371; doi:10.3390/s110404358
Article

Estimation of Distributed Fermat-Point Location for Wireless Sensor Networking

1,* , 2
, 2
 and 3
1 Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Yuanpei University, No. 306, Yuanpei Street, Hsinchu, Taiwan 2 Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 3 Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2011 / Revised: 14 March 2011 / Accepted: 11 April 2011 / Published: 13 April 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

This work presents a localization scheme for use in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that is based on a proposed connectivity-based RF localization strategy called the distributed Fermat-point location estimation algorithm (DFPLE). DFPLE applies triangle area of location estimation formed by intersections of three neighboring beacon nodes. The Fermat point is determined as the shortest path from three vertices of the triangle. The area of estimated location then refined using Fermat point to achieve minimum error in estimating sensor nodes location. DFPLE solves problems of large errors and poor performance encountered by localization schemes that are based on a bounding box algorithm. Performance analysis of a 200-node development environment reveals that, when the number of sensor nodes is below 150, the mean error decreases rapidly as the node density increases, and when the number of sensor nodes exceeds 170, the mean error remains below 1% as the node density increases. Second, when the number of beacon nodes is less than 60, normal nodes lack sufficient beacon nodes to enable their locations to be estimated. However, the mean error changes slightly as the number of beacon nodes increases above 60. Simulation results revealed that the proposed algorithm for estimating sensor positions is more accurate than existing algorithms, and improves upon conventional bounding box strategies.
Keywords: wireless sensor network; distributed fermat-point location estimation (DF-PLE); bounding box algorithm wireless sensor network; distributed fermat-point location estimation (DF-PLE); bounding box algorithm
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, P.-H.; Chen, J.-L.; Larosa, Y.T.; Chiang, T.-L. Estimation of Distributed Fermat-Point Location for Wireless Sensor Networking. Sensors 2011, 11, 4358-4371.

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