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Tightly Coupled Low Cost 3D RISS/GPS Integration Using a Mixture Particle Filter for Vehicular Navigation
Trusted Positioning Inc., Calgary, AB, T2L 2K7, Canada
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4, Canada
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2011; in revised form: 2 April 2011 / Accepted: 7 April 2011 / Published: 8 April 2011
Abstract: Satellite navigation systems such as the global positioning system (GPS) are currently the most common technique used for land vehicle positioning. However, in GPS-denied environments, there is an interruption in the positioning information. Low-cost micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors can be integrated with GPS and enhance the performance in denied GPS environments. The traditional technique for this integration problem is Kalman filtering (KF). Due to the inherent errors of low-cost MEMS inertial sensors and their large stochastic drifts, KF, with its linearized models, has limited capabilities in providing accurate positioning. Particle filtering (PF) was recently suggested as a nonlinear filtering technique to accommodate for arbitrary inertial sensor characteristics, motion dynamics and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF called the Mixture PF is utilized in this study to perform tightly coupled integration of a three dimensional (3D) reduced inertial sensors system (RISS) with GPS. In this work, the RISS consists of one single-axis gyroscope and a two-axis accelerometer used together with the vehicle’s odometer to obtain 3D navigation states. These sensors are then integrated with GPS in a tightly coupled scheme. In loosely-coupled integration, at least four satellites are needed to provide acceptable GPS position and velocity updates for the integration filter. The advantage of the tightly-coupled integration is that it can provide GPS measurement update(s) even when the number of visible satellites is three or lower, thereby improving the operation of the navigation system in environments with partial blockages by providing continuous aiding to the inertial sensors even during limited GPS satellite availability. To effectively exploit the capabilities of PF, advanced modeling for the stochastic drift of the vertically aligned gyroscope is used. In order to benefit from measurement updates for such drift, which are loosely-coupled updates, a hybrid loosely/tightly coupled solution is proposed. This solution is suitable for downtown environments because of the long natural outages or degradation of GPS. The performance of the proposed 3D Navigation solution using Mixture PF for 3D RISS/GPS integration is examined by road test trajectories in a land vehicle and compared to the KF counterpart.
Keywords: land vehicle navigation; inertial sensors; MEMS sensors; GPS; particle filter; Kalman filter; tightly coupled INS/GPS integration
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Georgy, J.; Noureldin, A. Tightly Coupled Low Cost 3D RISS/GPS Integration Using a Mixture Particle Filter for Vehicular Navigation. Sensors 2011, 11, 4244-4276.
Georgy J, Noureldin A. Tightly Coupled Low Cost 3D RISS/GPS Integration Using a Mixture Particle Filter for Vehicular Navigation. Sensors. 2011; 11(4):4244-4276.
Georgy, Jacques; Noureldin, Aboelmagd. 2011. "Tightly Coupled Low Cost 3D RISS/GPS Integration Using a Mixture Particle Filter for Vehicular Navigation." Sensors 11, no. 4: 4244-4276.