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Sensors 2011, 11(3), 3381-3400; doi:10.3390/s110303381
Article

A Reliable Energy-Efficient Multi-Level Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy Petri Nets

1,* , 1
, 2
 and 3
1 School of Telecommunication Engineering, Air Force Engineering University, Xi’an 710077, China 2 School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China 3 Cyber-Physical Networking Laboratory, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 January 2011 / Revised: 16 February 2011 / Accepted: 4 March 2011 / Published: 22 March 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

A reliable energy-efficient multi-level routing algorithm in wireless sensor networks is proposed. The proposed algorithm considers the residual energy, number of the neighbors and centrality of each node for cluster formation, which is critical for well-balanced energy dissipation of the network. In the algorithm, a knowledge-based inference approach using fuzzy Petri nets is employed to select cluster heads, and then the fuzzy reasoning mechanism is used to compute the degree of reliability in the route sprouting tree from cluster heads to the base station. Finally, the most reliable route among the cluster heads can be constructed. The algorithm not only balances the energy load of each node but also provides global reliability for the whole network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm effectively prolongs the network lifetime and reduces the energy consumption.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; routing algorithm; clustering; fuzzy Petri nets wireless sensor networks; routing algorithm; clustering; fuzzy Petri nets
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Yu, Z.; Fu, X.; Cai, Y.; Vuran, M.C. A Reliable Energy-Efficient Multi-Level Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy Petri Nets. Sensors 2011, 11, 3381-3400.

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