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Accuracy and Feasibility of Optoelectronic Sensors for Weed Mapping in Wide Row Crops
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, CSIC, Serrano 115B, 28006 Madrid, Spain
Centre for Automation and Robotics, CSIC-UPM, 28500 Arganda del Rey, Madrid, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2010; in revised form: 28 January 2011 / Accepted: 10 February 2011 / Published: 24 February 2011
Abstract: The main objectives of this study were to assess the accuracy of a ground-based weed mapping system that included optoelectronic sensors for weed detection, and to determine the sampling resolution required for accurate weed maps in maize crops. The optoelectronic sensors were located in the inter-row area of maize to distinguish weeds against soil background. The system was evaluated in three maize fields in the early spring. System verification was performed with highly reliable data from digital images obtained in a regular 12 m × 12 m grid throughout the three fields. The comparison in all these sample points showed a good relationship (83% agreement on average) between the data of weed presence/absence obtained from the optoelectronic mapping system and the values derived from image processing software (“ground truth”). Regarding the optimization of sampling resolution, the comparison between the detailed maps (all crop rows with sensors separated 0.75 m) with maps obtained with various simulated distances between sensors (from 1.5 m to 6.0 m) indicated that a 4.5 m distance (equivalent to one in six crop rows) would be acceptable to construct accurate weed maps. This spatial resolution makes the system cheap and robust enough to generate maps of inter-row weeds.
Keywords: weed detection; ground-based mapping system; sampling resolution; site-specific weed management
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MDPI and ACS Style
Andújar, D.; Ribeiro, Á.; Fernández-Quintanilla, C.; Dorado, J. Accuracy and Feasibility of Optoelectronic Sensors for Weed Mapping in Wide Row Crops. Sensors 2011, 11, 2304-2318.
Andújar D, Ribeiro Á, Fernández-Quintanilla C, Dorado J. Accuracy and Feasibility of Optoelectronic Sensors for Weed Mapping in Wide Row Crops. Sensors. 2011; 11(3):2304-2318.
Andújar, Dionisio; Ribeiro, Ángela; Fernández-Quintanilla, César; Dorado, José. 2011. "Accuracy and Feasibility of Optoelectronic Sensors for Weed Mapping in Wide Row Crops." Sensors 11, no. 3: 2304-2318.