Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2112-2128; doi:10.3390/s110202112
Review

Physiological Sensing of Carbon Dioxide/Bicarbonate/pH via Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling

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Received: 3 January 2011; in revised form: 28 January 2011 / Accepted: 10 February 2011 / Published: 11 February 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors - 2010)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced by living organisms as a byproduct of metabolism. In physiological systems, CO2 is unequivocally linked with bicarbonate (HCO3) and pH via a ubiquitous family of carbonic anhydrases, and numerous biological processes are dependent upon a mechanism for sensing the level of CO2, HCO3, and/or pH. The discovery that soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is directly regulated by bicarbonate provided a link between CO2/HCO3/pH chemosensing and signaling via the widely used second messenger cyclic AMP. This review summarizes the evidence that bicarbonate-regulated sAC, and additional, subsequently identified bicarbonate-regulate nucleotidyl cyclases, function as evolutionarily conserved CO2/HCO3/pH chemosensors in a wide variety of physiological systems.
Keywords: soluble adenylyl cyclase; cAMP; second messenger; cyclic nucleotides; bicarbonate; carbon dioxide; pH
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MDPI and ACS Style

Buck, J.; Levin, L.R. Physiological Sensing of Carbon Dioxide/Bicarbonate/pH via Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling. Sensors 2011, 11, 2112-2128.

AMA Style

Buck J, Levin LR. Physiological Sensing of Carbon Dioxide/Bicarbonate/pH via Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling. Sensors. 2011; 11(2):2112-2128.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R. 2011. "Physiological Sensing of Carbon Dioxide/Bicarbonate/pH via Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling." Sensors 11, no. 2: 2112-2128.

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