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Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2112-2128; doi:10.3390/s110202112
Review

Physiological Sensing of Carbon Dioxide/Bicarbonate/pH via Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling

*  and *
Received: 3 January 2011; in revised form: 28 January 2011 / Accepted: 10 February 2011 / Published: 11 February 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors - 2010)
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Abstract: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced by living organisms as a byproduct of metabolism. In physiological systems, CO2 is unequivocally linked with bicarbonate (HCO3) and pH via a ubiquitous family of carbonic anhydrases, and numerous biological processes are dependent upon a mechanism for sensing the level of CO2, HCO3, and/or pH. The discovery that soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is directly regulated by bicarbonate provided a link between CO2/HCO3/pH chemosensing and signaling via the widely used second messenger cyclic AMP. This review summarizes the evidence that bicarbonate-regulated sAC, and additional, subsequently identified bicarbonate-regulate nucleotidyl cyclases, function as evolutionarily conserved CO2/HCO3/pH chemosensors in a wide variety of physiological systems.
Keywords: soluble adenylyl cyclase; cAMP; second messenger; cyclic nucleotides; bicarbonate; carbon dioxide; pH soluble adenylyl cyclase; cAMP; second messenger; cyclic nucleotides; bicarbonate; carbon dioxide; pH
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Buck, J.; Levin, L.R. Physiological Sensing of Carbon Dioxide/Bicarbonate/pH via Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling. Sensors 2011, 11, 2112-2128.

AMA Style

Buck J, Levin LR. Physiological Sensing of Carbon Dioxide/Bicarbonate/pH via Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling. Sensors. 2011; 11(2):2112-2128.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R. 2011. "Physiological Sensing of Carbon Dioxide/Bicarbonate/pH via Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling." Sensors 11, no. 2: 2112-2128.



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