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Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10638-10663; doi:10.3390/s111110638

Bio-Sensing of Cadmium(II) Ions Using Staphylococcus aureus

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
2
Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno, Czech Republic
3
Lead and Cadmium Initiatives, United Nations Environment Program, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
4
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
5
Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
6
Department of Microelectronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 10, CZ-616 00 Brno, Czech Republic
7
Department of Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Dedicated United Nations Environment Program: Lead and Cadmium Initiatives.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2011 / Revised: 31 October 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 8 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing of Toxic and Hazardous Metals in Various Environmental Media)
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Abstract

Cadmium, as a hazardous pollutant commonly present in the living environment, represents an important risk to human health due to its undesirable effects (oxidative stress, changes in activities of many enzymes, interactions with biomolecules including DNA and RNA) and consequent potential risk, making its detection very important. New and unique technological and biotechnological approaches for solving this problems are intensely sought. In this study, we used the commonly occurring potential pathogenic microorganism Staphylococcus aureus for the determination of markers which could be used for sensing of cadmium(II) ions. We were focused on monitoring the effects of different cadmium(II) ion concentrations (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 50 µg mL−1) on the growth and energetic metabolism of Staphylococcus aureus. Highly significant changes have been detected in the metabolism of thiol compounds—specifically the protein metallothionein (0.79–26.82 mmol/mg of protein), the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (190–5,827 µmol/min/mg of protein), and sulfhydryl groups (9.6–274.3 µmol cysteine/mg of protein). The ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione indicated marked oxidative stress. In addition, dramatic changes in urease activity, which is connected with resistance of bacteria, were determined. Further, the effects of cadmium(II) ions on the metabolic pathways of arginine, β-glucosidase, phosphatase, N-acetyl β-D-glucosamine, sucrose, trehalose, mannitol, maltose, lactose, fructose and total proteins were demonstrated. A metabolomic profile of Staphylococcus aureus under cadmium(II) ion treatment conditions was completed seeking data about the possibility of cadmium(II) ion accumulation in cells. The results demonstrate potential in the application of microorganisms as modern biosensor systems based on biological components.
Keywords: biosensor; cadmium; Staphylococcus aureus; metabolic activity; metabolome; microbiome; electrochemistry; voltammetry; Brdicka reaction; spectrophotometry; high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection biosensor; cadmium; Staphylococcus aureus; metabolic activity; metabolome; microbiome; electrochemistry; voltammetry; Brdicka reaction; spectrophotometry; high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sochor, J.; Zitka, O.; Hynek, D.; Jilkova, E.; Krejcova, L.; Trnkova, L.; Adam, V.; Hubalek, J.; Kynicky, J.; Vrba, R.; Kizek, R. Bio-Sensing of Cadmium(II) Ions Using Staphylococcus aureus. Sensors 2011, 11, 10638-10663.

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