Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9573-9588; doi:10.3390/s111009573
Article

Facial Expression Recognition Based on Local Binary Patterns and Kernel Discriminant Isomap

1 Department of Computer Science, Taizhou University, Taizhou 317000, China 2 School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2011; in revised form: 27 September 2011 / Accepted: 9 October 2011 / Published: 11 October 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract: Facial expression recognition is an interesting and challenging subject. Considering the nonlinear manifold structure of facial images, a new kernel-based manifold learning method, called kernel discriminant isometric mapping (KDIsomap), is proposed. KDIsomap aims to nonlinearly extract the discriminant information by maximizing the interclass scatter while minimizing the intraclass scatter in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. KDIsomap is used to perform nonlinear dimensionality reduction on the extracted local binary patterns (LBP) facial features, and produce low-dimensional discrimimant embedded data representations with striking performance improvement on facial expression recognition tasks. The nearest neighbor classifier with the Euclidean metric is used for facial expression classification. Facial expression recognition experiments are performed on two popular facial expression databases, i.e., the JAFFE database and the Cohn-Kanade database. Experimental results indicate that KDIsomap obtains the best accuracy of 81.59% on the JAFFE database, and 94.88% on the Cohn-Kanade database. KDIsomap outperforms the other used methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), kernel linear discriminant analysis (KLDA) as well as kernel isometric mapping (KIsomap).
Keywords: kernel; isometric mapping; dimensionality reduction; local binary patterns; facial expression recognition

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, X.; Zhang, S. Facial Expression Recognition Based on Local Binary Patterns and Kernel Discriminant Isomap. Sensors 2011, 11, 9573-9588.

AMA Style

Zhao X, Zhang S. Facial Expression Recognition Based on Local Binary Patterns and Kernel Discriminant Isomap. Sensors. 2011; 11(10):9573-9588.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Shiqing. 2011. "Facial Expression Recognition Based on Local Binary Patterns and Kernel Discriminant Isomap." Sensors 11, no. 10: 9573-9588.

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