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Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9121-9135; doi:10.3390/s111009121
Article

A Novel Approach for Foreign Substances Detection in Injection Using Clustering and Frame Difference

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Received: 2 August 2011 / Revised: 15 September 2011 / Accepted: 16 September 2011 / Published: 27 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

This paper focuses on developing a novel technique based on machine vision for detection of foreign substances in injections. Mechanical control yields spin/stop movement of injections which helps to cause relative movement between foreign substances in liquid and an ampoule bottle. Foreign substances are classified into two categories: subsiding-slowly object and subsiding-fast object. A sequence of frames are captured by a camera and used to recognize foreign substances. After image preprocessing like noise reduction and motion detection, two different methods, Moving-object Clustering (MC) and Frame Difference, are proposed to detect the two categories respectively. MC is operated to cluster subsiding-slowly foreign substances, based on the invariant features of those objects. Frame Difference is defined to calculate the difference between two frames due to the change of subsiding-fast objects. 200 ampoule samples filled with injection are tested and the experimental result indicates that the approach can detect the visible foreign substances effectively.
Keywords: computer vision; detection of foreign substances; clustering; frame difference computer vision; detection of foreign substances; clustering; frame difference
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Lu, G.; Zhou, Y.; Yu, Y.; Du, S. A Novel Approach for Foreign Substances Detection in Injection Using Clustering and Frame Difference. Sensors 2011, 11, 9121-9135.

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