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A Novel Approach for Foreign Substances Detection in Injection Using Clustering and Frame Difference
School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2011; in revised form: 15 September 2011 / Accepted: 16 September 2011 / Published: 27 September 2011
Abstract: This paper focuses on developing a novel technique based on machine vision for detection of foreign substances in injections. Mechanical control yields spin/stop movement of injections which helps to cause relative movement between foreign substances in liquid and an ampoule bottle. Foreign substances are classified into two categories: subsiding-slowly object and subsiding-fast object. A sequence of frames are captured by a camera and used to recognize foreign substances. After image preprocessing like noise reduction and motion detection, two different methods, Moving-object Clustering (MC) and Frame Difference, are proposed to detect the two categories respectively. MC is operated to cluster subsiding-slowly foreign substances, based on the invariant features of those objects. Frame Difference is defined to calculate the difference between two frames due to the change of subsiding-fast objects. 200 ampoule samples filled with injection are tested and the experimental result indicates that the approach can detect the visible foreign substances effectively.
Keywords: computer vision; detection of foreign substances; clustering; frame difference
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Lu, G.; Zhou, Y.; Yu, Y.; Du, S. A Novel Approach for Foreign Substances Detection in Injection Using Clustering and Frame Difference. Sensors 2011, 11, 9121-9135.
Lu G, Zhou Y, Yu Y, Du S. A Novel Approach for Foreign Substances Detection in Injection Using Clustering and Frame Difference. Sensors. 2011; 11(10):9121-9135.
Lu, Guiliang; Zhou, Yu; Yu, Yao; Du, Sidan. 2011. "A Novel Approach for Foreign Substances Detection in Injection Using Clustering and Frame Difference." Sensors 11, no. 10: 9121-9135.