Sensors 2011, 11(1), 207-227; doi:10.3390/s110100207

Sensing Pressure Distribution on a Lower-Limb Exoskeleton Physical Human-Machine Interface

1 ARTS Lab, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025, Pontedera (Pi), Italy 2 Biorobotics Laboratory, Institute of Bioengineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland 3 Biomechanical Engineering Laboratory, Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine (MIRA), University of Twente, 7500 EA Enschede, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2010; in revised form: 22 November 2010 / Accepted: 24 December 2010 / Published: 28 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Abstract: A sensory apparatus to monitor pressure distribution on the physical human-robot interface of lower-limb exoskeletons is presented. We propose a distributed measure of the interaction pressure over the whole contact area between the user and the machine as an alternative measurement method of human-robot interaction. To obtain this measure, an array of newly-developed soft silicone pressure sensors is inserted between the limb and the mechanical interface that connects the robot to the user, in direct contact with the wearer’s skin. Compared to state-of-the-art measures, the advantage of this approach is that it allows for a distributed measure of the interaction pressure, which could be useful for the assessment of safety and comfort of human-robot interaction. This paper presents the new sensor and its characterization, and the development of an interaction measurement apparatus, which is applied to a lower-limb rehabilitation robot. The system is calibrated, and an example its use during a prototypical gait training task is presented.
Keywords: human-robot interaction; physical human-machine interface; distributed force sensor; lower-limb exoskeleton

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MDPI and ACS Style

De Rossi, S.M.M.; Vitiello, N.; Lenzi, T.; Ronsse, R.; Koopman, B.; Persichetti, A.; Vecchi, F.; Ijspeert, A.J.; Van der Kooij, H.; Carrozza, M.C. Sensing Pressure Distribution on a Lower-Limb Exoskeleton Physical Human-Machine Interface. Sensors 2011, 11, 207-227.

AMA Style

De Rossi SMM, Vitiello N, Lenzi T, Ronsse R, Koopman B, Persichetti A, Vecchi F, Ijspeert AJ, Van der Kooij H, Carrozza MC. Sensing Pressure Distribution on a Lower-Limb Exoskeleton Physical Human-Machine Interface. Sensors. 2011; 11(1):207-227.

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Rossi, Stefano Marco Maria; Vitiello, Nicola; Lenzi, Tommaso; Ronsse, Renaud; Koopman, Bram; Persichetti, Alessandro; Vecchi, Fabrizio; Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Van der Kooij, Herman; Carrozza, Maria Chiara. 2011. "Sensing Pressure Distribution on a Lower-Limb Exoskeleton Physical Human-Machine Interface." Sensors 11, no. 1: 207-227.

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