Sensors 2011, 11(1), 1028-1042; doi:10.3390/s110101028
Article

Ionophore-Based Potentiometric Sensors for the Flow-Injection Determination of Promethazine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Human Urine

1 Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq 2 School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia 3 Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Tikrit University, Tikrit, Iraq
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2010; in revised form: 8 January 2011 / Accepted: 18 January 2011 / Published: 18 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract: Plasticised poly(vinyl chloride)-based membranes containing the ionophores (α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins (CD), dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) and dibenzo-30-crown-10 (DB30C10) were evaluated for their potentiometric response towards promethazine (PM) in a flow injection analysis (FIA) set-up. Good responses were obtained when β- and γ-CDs, and DB30C10 were used. The performance characteristics were further improved when tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (KTPB) was added to the membrane. The sensor based on β-CD, bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (BEHA) and KTPB exhibited the best performance among the eighteen sensor compositions that were tested. The response was linear from 1 x 10−5 to 1 x 10−2 M, slope was 61.3 mV decade−1, the pH independent region ranged from 4.5 to 7.0, a limit of detection of 5.3 x 10−6 M was possible and a lifetime of more than a month was observed when used in the FIA system. Other plasticisers such as dioctyl phenylphosphonate and tributyl phosphate do not show significant improvements in the quality of the sensors. The promising sensors were further tested for the effects of foreign ions (Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Cr3+, Fe3+, glucose, fructose). FIA conditions (e.g., effects of flow rate, injection volume, pH of the carrier stream) were also studied when the best sensor was used (based on β-CD). The sensor was applied to the determination of PM in four pharmaceutical preparations and human urine that were spiked with different levels of PM. Good agreement between the sensor and the manufacturer’s claimed values (for pharmaceutical preparations) was obtained, while mean recoveries of 98.6% were obtained for spiked urine samples. The molecular recognition features of the sensors as revealed by molecular modelling were rationalised by the nature of the interactions and complexation energies between the host and guest molecules.
Keywords: flow injection analysis; ionophore; potentiometric sensor; promethazine

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hassan, A.K.; Saad, B.; Ghani, S.A.; Adnan, R.; Rahim, A.A.; Ahmad, N.; Mokhtar, M.; Ameen, S.T.; Al-Araji, S.M. Ionophore-Based Potentiometric Sensors for the Flow-Injection Determination of Promethazine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Human Urine. Sensors 2011, 11, 1028-1042.

AMA Style

Hassan AK, Saad B, Ghani SA, Adnan R, Rahim AA, Ahmad N, Mokhtar M, Ameen ST, Al-Araji SM. Ionophore-Based Potentiometric Sensors for the Flow-Injection Determination of Promethazine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Human Urine. Sensors. 2011; 11(1):1028-1042.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hassan, Ahmed Khudhair; Saad, Bahruddin; Ghani, Sulaiman Ab; Adnan, Rohana; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Ahmad, Norariza; Mokhtar, Marina; Ameen, Suham Towfiq; Al-Araji, Suad Mustafa. 2011. "Ionophore-Based Potentiometric Sensors for the Flow-Injection Determination of Promethazine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Human Urine." Sensors 11, no. 1: 1028-1042.

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