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Sensors 2010, 10(9), 8316-8331; doi:10.3390/s100908316
Article

FPGA-based Fused Smart Sensor for Real-Time Plant-Transpiration Dynamic Estimation

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Received: 21 July 2010; in revised form: 6 August 2010 / Accepted: 20 August 2010 / Published: 2 September 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Agriculture and Forestry)
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Abstract: Plant transpiration is considered one of the most important physiological functions because it constitutes the plants evolving adaptation to exchange moisture with a dry atmosphere which can dehydrate or eventually kill the plant. Due to the importance of transpiration, accurate measurement methods are required; therefore, a smart sensor that fuses five primary sensors is proposed which can measure air temperature, leaf temperature, air relative humidity, plant out relative humidity and ambient light. A field programmable gate array based unit is used to perform signal processing algorithms as average decimation and infinite impulse response filters to the primary sensor readings in order to reduce the signal noise and improve its quality. Once the primary sensor readings are filtered, transpiration dynamics such as: transpiration, stomatal conductance, leaf-air-temperature-difference and vapor pressure deficit are calculated in real time by the smart sensor. This permits the user to observe different primary and calculated measurements at the same time and the relationship between these which is very useful in precision agriculture in the detection of abnormal conditions. Finally, transpiration related stress conditions can be detected in real time because of the use of online processing and embedded communications capabilities.
Keywords: smart sensor; transpiration; stomatal conductance; precision agriculture; phytomonitoring; water stress; field programmable gate array smart sensor; transpiration; stomatal conductance; precision agriculture; phytomonitoring; water stress; field programmable gate array
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Millan-Almaraz, J.R.; Romero-Troncoso, R.J.; Guevara-Gonzalez, R.G.; Contreras-Medina, L.M.; Carrillo-Serrano, R.V.; Osornio-Rios, R.A.; Duarte-Galvan, C.; Rios-Alcaraz, M.A.; Torres-Pacheco, I. FPGA-based Fused Smart Sensor for Real-Time Plant-Transpiration Dynamic Estimation. Sensors 2010, 10, 8316-8331.

AMA Style

Millan-Almaraz JR, Romero-Troncoso RJ, Guevara-Gonzalez RG, Contreras-Medina LM, Carrillo-Serrano RV, Osornio-Rios RA, Duarte-Galvan C, Rios-Alcaraz MA, Torres-Pacheco I. FPGA-based Fused Smart Sensor for Real-Time Plant-Transpiration Dynamic Estimation. Sensors. 2010; 10(9):8316-8331.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Millan-Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Romero-Troncoso, Rene de Jesus; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon Gerardo; Contreras-Medina, Luis Miguel; Carrillo-Serrano, Roberto Valentin; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Duarte-Galvan, Carlos; Rios-Alcaraz, Miguel Angel; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo. 2010. "FPGA-based Fused Smart Sensor for Real-Time Plant-Transpiration Dynamic Estimation." Sensors 10, no. 9: 8316-8331.



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