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Sensors 2010, 10(9), 7947-7978; doi:10.3390/s100907947
Review

Recent Trends in Monitoring of European Water Framework Directive Priority Substances Using Micro-Sensors: A 2007–2009 Review

1,2,* , 3
 and 1
Received: 12 June 2010; in revised form: 21 July 2010 / Accepted: 9 August 2010 / Published: 26 August 2010
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract: This review discusses from a critical perspective the development of new sensors for the measurement of priority pollutants targeted in the E.U. Water Framework Directive. Significant advances are reported in the paper and their advantages and limitations are also discussed. Future perspectives in this area are also pointed out in the conclusions. This review covers publications appeared since December 2006 (the publication date of the Swift report). Among priority substances, sensors for monitoring the four WFD metals represent 81% of published papers. None of analyzed publications present a micro-sensor totally validated in laboratory, ready for tests under real conditions in the field. The researches are mainly focused on the sensing part of the micro-sensors. Nevertheless, the main factor limiting micro-sensor applications in the environment is the ruggedness of the receptor towards environmental conditions. This point constitutes the first technological obstacle to be overcome for any long-term field tests.
Keywords: sensors; water framework directive; metals; priority substance sensors; water framework directive; metals; priority substance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Namour, P.; Lepot, M.; Jaffrezic-Renault, N. Recent Trends in Monitoring of European Water Framework Directive Priority Substances Using Micro-Sensors: A 2007–2009 Review. Sensors 2010, 10, 7947-7978.

AMA Style

Namour P, Lepot M, Jaffrezic-Renault N. Recent Trends in Monitoring of European Water Framework Directive Priority Substances Using Micro-Sensors: A 2007–2009 Review. Sensors. 2010; 10(9):7947-7978.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Namour, Philippe; Lepot, Mathieu; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole. 2010. "Recent Trends in Monitoring of European Water Framework Directive Priority Substances Using Micro-Sensors: A 2007–2009 Review." Sensors 10, no. 9: 7947-7978.


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