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Sensors 2010, 10(9), 7947-7978; doi:10.3390/s100907947

Recent Trends in Monitoring of European Water Framework Directive Priority Substances Using Micro-Sensors: A 2007–2009 Review

Université de Lyon, Laboratory of Analytical Sciences, UMR CNRS 5180, 43 boulevard 11 novembre 1918, F-69622, Villeurbanne cedex, France
Cemagref, UR MALY, CP 220, F-69336, Lyon cedex 09, France
Université de Lyon, INSA Lyon, LGCIE, 34 Avenue des arts, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2010 / Revised: 21 July 2010 / Accepted: 9 August 2010 / Published: 26 August 2010
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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This review discusses from a critical perspective the development of new sensors for the measurement of priority pollutants targeted in the E.U. Water Framework Directive. Significant advances are reported in the paper and their advantages and limitations are also discussed. Future perspectives in this area are also pointed out in the conclusions. This review covers publications appeared since December 2006 (the publication date of the Swift report). Among priority substances, sensors for monitoring the four WFD metals represent 81% of published papers. None of analyzed publications present a micro-sensor totally validated in laboratory, ready for tests under real conditions in the field. The researches are mainly focused on the sensing part of the micro-sensors. Nevertheless, the main factor limiting micro-sensor applications in the environment is the ruggedness of the receptor towards environmental conditions. This point constitutes the first technological obstacle to be overcome for any long-term field tests.
Keywords: sensors; water framework directive; metals; priority substance sensors; water framework directive; metals; priority substance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Namour, P.; Lepot, M.; Jaffrezic-Renault, N. Recent Trends in Monitoring of European Water Framework Directive Priority Substances Using Micro-Sensors: A 2007–2009 Review. Sensors 2010, 10, 7947-7978.

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