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GPCA vs. PCA in Recognition and 3-D Localization of Ultrasound Reflectors
Electronics Department, High Polytechnic School, Alcalá University, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain
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Received: 25 February 2010; in revised form: 20 April 2010 / Accepted: 7 May 2010 / Published: 11 May 2010
Abstract: In this paper, a new method of classification and localization of reflectors, using the time-of-flight (TOF) data obtained from ultrasonic transducers, is presented. The method of classification and localization is based on Generalized Principal Component Analysis (GPCA) applied to the TOF values obtained from a sensor that contains four ultrasound emitters and 16 receivers. Since PCA works with vectorized representations of TOF, it does not take into account the spatial locality of receivers. The GPCA works with two-dimensional representations of TOF, taking into account information on the spatial position of the receivers. This report includes a detailed description of the method of classification and localization and the results of achieved tests with three types of reflectors in 3-D environments: planes, edges, and corners. The results in terms of processing time, classification and localization were very satisfactory for the reflectors located in the range of 50–350 cm.
Keywords: principal component analysis (PCA); generalized principal component analysis (GPCA); reflector classification; times-of-flight (TOFs); ultrasonic sensors
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Luna, C.A.; Jiménez, J.A.; Pizarro, D.; Losada, C.; Rodriguez, J.M. GPCA vs. PCA in Recognition and 3-D Localization of Ultrasound Reflectors. Sensors 2010, 10, 4825-4837.
Luna CA, Jiménez JA, Pizarro D, Losada C, Rodriguez JM. GPCA vs. PCA in Recognition and 3-D Localization of Ultrasound Reflectors. Sensors. 2010; 10(5):4825-4837.
Luna, Carlos A.; Jiménez, José A.; Pizarro, Daniel; Losada, Cristina; Rodriguez, José M. 2010. "GPCA vs. PCA in Recognition and 3-D Localization of Ultrasound Reflectors." Sensors 10, no. 5: 4825-4837.