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Sensors 2010, 10(5), 4739-4755; doi:10.3390/s100504739
Article

Biosensing for the Environment and Defence: Aqueous Uranyl Detection Using Bacterial Surface Layer Proteins

1,* , 1
,
2
 and
3
1 Biosensors and Biocatalysis Group, Institute of Membranes and Systems Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK 2 School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK 3 Institute of Radiochemistry, Forschungszentrum Dresden, Rossendorf, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2010 / Revised: 22 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 April 2010 / Published: 10 May 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in the UK)
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Abstract

The fabrication of novel uranyl (UO22+) binding protein based sensors is reported. The new biosensor responds to picomolar levels of aqueous uranyl ions within minutes using Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-A12 S-layer protein tethered to gold electrodes. In comparison to traditional self assembled monolayer based biosensors the porous bioconjugated layer gave greater stability, longer electrode life span and a denser protein layer. Biosensors responded specifically to UO22+ ions and showed minor interference from Ni2+, Cs+, Cd2+ and Co2+. Chemical modification of JG-A12 protein phosphate and carboxyl groups prevented UO22+ binding, showing that both moieties are involved in the recognition to UO22+.
Keywords: S-layer; surface layer; protein biosensor; uranium; uranyl; metal ion; sequestering; impedance spectroscopy S-layer; surface layer; protein biosensor; uranium; uranyl; metal ion; sequestering; impedance spectroscopy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Conroy, D.J.; Millner, P.A.; Stewart, D.I.; Pollmann, K. Biosensing for the Environment and Defence: Aqueous Uranyl Detection Using Bacterial Surface Layer Proteins. Sensors 2010, 10, 4739-4755.

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