Sensors 2010, 10(4), 4130-4144; doi:10.3390/s100404130
Article

Design and Simulation of a MEMS Control Moment Gyroscope for the Sub-Kilogram Spacecraft

Micro and Nano Electromechanical System Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 March 2010; in revised form: 19 April 2010 / Accepted: 20 April 2010 / Published: 26 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract: A novel design of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) control moment gyroscope (MCMG) was proposed in this paper in order to generate a torque output with a magnitude of 10-6 N∙m. The MCMG consists of two orthogonal angular vibration systems, i.e., the rotor and gimbal; the coupling between which is based on the Coriolis effect and will cause a torque output in the direction perpendicular to the two vibrations. The angular rotor vibration was excited by the in-plane electrostatic rotary comb actuators, while the angular gimbal vibration was driven by an out-of-plane electrostatic parallel plate actuator. A possible process flow to fabricate the structure was proposed and discussed step by step. Furthermore, an array configuration using four MCMGs as an effective element, in which the torque was generated with a phase difference of 90 degrees between every two MCMGs, was proposed to smooth the inherent fluctuation of the torque output for a vibrational MCMG. The parasitic torque was cancelled by two opposite MCMGs with a phase difference of 180 degrees. The designed MCMG was about 1.1 cm × 1.1 cm × 0.04 cm in size and 0.1 g in weight. The simulation results showed that the maximum torque output of a MCMG, the resonant frequency of which was approximately 1,000 Hz, was about 2.5 × 10-8 N∙m. The element with four MCMGs could generate a torque of 5 × 10-8 N∙m. The torque output could reach a magnitude of 10-6 N∙m when the frequency was improved from 1,000 Hz to 10,000 Hz. Using arrays of 4 × 4 effective elements on a 1 kg spacecraft with a standard form factor of 10 cm × 10 cm × 10 cm, a 10 degrees attitude change could be achieved in 26.96s.
Keywords: MEMS; microactuator; control moment gyroscope; attitude control; sub-kilogram spacecraft

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, H.; Jiao, W.; Fu, Q.; Xie, J.; Yuan, W. Design and Simulation of a MEMS Control Moment Gyroscope for the Sub-Kilogram Spacecraft. Sensors 2010, 10, 4130-4144.

AMA Style

Chang H, Jiao W, Fu Q, Xie J, Yuan W. Design and Simulation of a MEMS Control Moment Gyroscope for the Sub-Kilogram Spacecraft. Sensors. 2010; 10(4):4130-4144.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chang, Honglong; Jiao, Wenlong; Fu, Qianyan; Xie, Jianbing; Yuan, Weizheng. 2010. "Design and Simulation of a MEMS Control Moment Gyroscope for the Sub-Kilogram Spacecraft." Sensors 10, no. 4: 4130-4144.

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