- freely available
Sensors 2010, 10(4), 3626-3640; doi:10.3390/s100403626
2. Related Work
2.1. Detour Architectures on Wired Network
2.2. Ad-Hoc/Sensor Routing
2.3. Existing Defense Mechanisms against Jamming
3. Detouring Service via Multiple Paths
3.1. Basic Detouring Service
- Victim/Jamming zone: Zone including victim nodes against jamming attacks
- Neighbor zone: Adjacent zones of each zone
- Destination zone: Zone including a destination node
- Detour node: As the boundary node of the victim zone, it performs the algorithm shown in Table 2, thus it detours normal traffic with the determined multiple paths.
- Forward node: The first foothold nodes are used to detour normal traffic. After the detour nodes determine these nodes, they forward normal traffic to them.
- Forward zone: Zone determined by a detour node for detouring normal traffic
3.2. An Extension of a Routing Protocol RDSR 
4. Simulation Results
References and Notes
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|Spectrum Spreading [18,19,20]||Physical Layer||It is too energy-consuming to be widely deployed in resource-constrained sensors.|
|Channel Hopping [21,22,23]||Link Layer||The jammer can also change the jamming channel continuously and then it enlarges the channel switching overhead on nodes on the entire network.|
|Retreat ||Network Layer||It is limit to mobile environment.|
|JAM ||Network Layer||It simply focused on a mapping service for the jamming area, thus the best single route detouring the jamming zone can easily become congested again.|
|DMP||Network Layer||As a general approach irrelative with specific protocols on physical and link layer, it can enhance the robustness against jamming on existing routing protocols.|
|1:||IF (nnext-hop ∈ Njamming)|
|2:||Zforward = Nforward = Φ|
|3:||FOR(each z in Zneighbor)|
|4:||IF((fn in z ∉ Njamming) AND (czDist >= zDist) AND (z ≠ dz))|
|5:||add z to Zforward|
|8:||sort fn in Zforward according to the distance value|
|10:||WHILE(|Nforward| == α)|
|11:||pop the first node fn in the sorted list|
|12:||add fn to Nforward|
|14:||detour normal traffic evenly to fn in Nforward|
|16:||ELSE IF (nnext-hop ∉ Njamming)|
|17:||route the traffic according to the general routing protocol|
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