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Sensors 2010, 10(3), 1935-1954; doi:10.3390/s100301935
Review

Advances in Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors and Actuators

 and
*
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, 100 Rhines Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 January 2010 / Revised: 3 February 2010 / Accepted: 12 February 2010 / Published: 10 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Actuators)
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Abstract

Piezoelectrics have widespread use in today’s sensor and actuator technologies. However, most commercially available piezoelectric materials, e.g., Pb [ZrxTi1-x] O3 (PZT),are comprised of more than 60 weight percent lead (Pb). Dueto its harmful effects, there is a strong impetus to identify new lead-free replacement materials with comparable properties to those of PZT. This review highlights recent developments in several lead-free piezoelectric materials including BaTiO3, Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3, K0.5Bi0.5TiO3, Na0.5K0.5NbO3, and their solid solutions. The factors that contribute to strong piezoelectric behavior are described and a summary of the properties for the various systems is provided.
Keywords: ceramics; piezoelectrics; ferroelectrics; electromechanical ceramics; piezoelectrics; ferroelectrics; electromechanical
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Aksel, E.; Jones, J.L. Advances in Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors and Actuators. Sensors 2010, 10, 1935-1954.

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