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Advances in Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors and Actuators
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, 100 Rhines Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 January 2010; in revised form: 3 February 2010 / Accepted: 12 February 2010 / Published: 10 March 2010
Abstract: Piezoelectrics have widespread use in today’s sensor and actuator technologies. However, most commercially available piezoelectric materials, e.g., Pb [ZrxTi1-x] O3 (PZT),are comprised of more than 60 weight percent lead (Pb). Dueto its harmful effects, there is a strong impetus to identify new lead-free replacement materials with comparable properties to those of PZT. This review highlights recent developments in several lead-free piezoelectric materials including BaTiO3, Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3, K0.5Bi0.5TiO3, Na0.5K0.5NbO3, and their solid solutions. The factors that contribute to strong piezoelectric behavior are described and a summary of the properties for the various systems is provided.
Keywords: ceramics; piezoelectrics; ferroelectrics; electromechanical
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MDPI and ACS Style
Aksel, E.; Jones, J.L. Advances in Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors and Actuators. Sensors 2010, 10, 1935-1954.
Aksel E, Jones JL. Advances in Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors and Actuators. Sensors. 2010; 10(3):1935-1954.
Aksel, Elena; Jones, Jacob L. 2010. "Advances in Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors and Actuators." Sensors 10, no. 3: 1935-1954.