Sensors 2010, 10(3), 1473-1485; doi:10.3390/s100301473
Article

Paper Actuators Made with Cellulose and Hybrid Materials

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Received: 25 December 2009; in revised form: 27 January 2010 / Accepted: 20 February 2010 / Published: 26 February 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Actuators)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Recently, cellulose has been re-discovered as a smart material that can be used as sensor and actuator materials, which is termed electro-active paper (EAPap). This paper reports recent advances in paper actuators made with cellulose and hybrid materials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes, conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Two distinct actuator principles in EAPap actuators are demonstrated: piezoelectric effect and ion migration effect in cellulose. Piezoelectricity of cellulose EAPap is quite comparable with other piezoelectric polymers. But, it is biodegradable, biocompatible, mechanically strong and thermally stable. To enhance ion migration effect in the cellulose, polypyrrole conducting polymer and ionic liquids were nanocoated on the cellulose film. This hybrid cellulose EAPap nanocomposite exhibits durable bending actuation in an ambient humidity and temperature condition. Fabrication, characteristics and performance of the cellulose EAPap and its hybrid EAPap materials are illustrated. Also, its possibility for remotely microwave-driven paper actuator is demonstrated.
Keywords: Electro-active polymers; Smart materials; Cellulose; Piezoelectricity; Ion migration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.; Yun, S.; Mahadeva, S.K.; Yun, K.; Yang, S.Y.; Maniruzzaman, M. Paper Actuators Made with Cellulose and Hybrid Materials. Sensors 2010, 10, 1473-1485.

AMA Style

Kim J, Yun S, Mahadeva SK, Yun K, Yang SY, Maniruzzaman M. Paper Actuators Made with Cellulose and Hybrid Materials. Sensors. 2010; 10(3):1473-1485.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Jaehwan; Yun, Sungryul; Mahadeva, Suresha K.; Yun, Kiju; Yang, Sang Yeol; Maniruzzaman, Mohammad. 2010. "Paper Actuators Made with Cellulose and Hybrid Materials." Sensors 10, no. 3: 1473-1485.

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