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Sensors 2010, 10(3), 1473-1485; doi:10.3390/s100301473

Paper Actuators Made with Cellulose and Hybrid Materials

* ,
Center for EAPap Actuator, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University/ 253 Yonghyun-Dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon 402-751, Republic of Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 December 2009 / Revised: 27 January 2010 / Accepted: 20 February 2010 / Published: 26 February 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Actuators)
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Recently, cellulose has been re-discovered as a smart material that can be used as sensor and actuator materials, which is termed electro-active paper (EAPap). This paper reports recent advances in paper actuators made with cellulose and hybrid materials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes, conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Two distinct actuator principles in EAPap actuators are demonstrated: piezoelectric effect and ion migration effect in cellulose. Piezoelectricity of cellulose EAPap is quite comparable with other piezoelectric polymers. But, it is biodegradable, biocompatible, mechanically strong and thermally stable. To enhance ion migration effect in the cellulose, polypyrrole conducting polymer and ionic liquids were nanocoated on the cellulose film. This hybrid cellulose EAPap nanocomposite exhibits durable bending actuation in an ambient humidity and temperature condition. Fabrication, characteristics and performance of the cellulose EAPap and its hybrid EAPap materials are illustrated. Also, its possibility for remotely microwave-driven paper actuator is demonstrated.
Keywords: Electro-active polymers; Smart materials; Cellulose; Piezoelectricity; Ion migration Electro-active polymers; Smart materials; Cellulose; Piezoelectricity; Ion migration
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Kim, J.; Yun, S.; Mahadeva, S.K.; Yun, K.; Yang, S.Y.; Maniruzzaman, M. Paper Actuators Made with Cellulose and Hybrid Materials. Sensors 2010, 10, 1473-1485.

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