Sensors 2010, 10(11), 9808-9830; doi:10.3390/s101109808

Optical Sensing with Simultaneous Electrochemical Control in Metal Nanowire Arrays

1 Laboratory of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, ETH Zurich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland 2 Laboratory for Micro-/Nano-technology, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen, Switzerland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2010; in revised form: 10 October 2010 / Accepted: 15 October 2010 / Published: 2 November 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
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Abstract: This work explores the alternative use of noble metal nanowire systems in large-scale array configurations to exploit both the nanowires’ conductive nature and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The first known nanowire-based system has been constructed, with which optical signals are influenced by the simultaneous application of electrochemical potentials. Optical characterization of nanowire arrays was performed by measuring the bulk refractive index sensitivity and the limit of detection. The formation of an electrical double layer was controlled in NaCl solutions to study the effect of local refractive index changes on the spectral response. Resonance peak shifts of over 4 nm, a bulk refractive index sensitivity up to 115 nm/RIU and a limit of detection as low as 4.5 × 10−4 RIU were obtained for gold nanowire arrays. Simulations with the Multiple Multipole Program (MMP) confirm such bulk refractive index sensitivities. Initial experiments demonstrated successful optical biosensing using a novel form of particle-based nanowire arrays. In addition, the formation of an ionic layer (Stern-layer) upon applying an electrochemical potential was also monitored by the shift of the plasmon resonance.
Keywords: nanowire; sensing; nanoparticle; array; LSPR; electrochemistry; nanotechnology; biosensors; bioelectronics

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MDPI and ACS Style

MacKenzie, R.; Fraschina, C.; Sannomiya, T.; Auzelyte, V.; Vörös, J. Optical Sensing with Simultaneous Electrochemical Control in Metal Nanowire Arrays. Sensors 2010, 10, 9808-9830.

AMA Style

MacKenzie R, Fraschina C, Sannomiya T, Auzelyte V, Vörös J. Optical Sensing with Simultaneous Electrochemical Control in Metal Nanowire Arrays. Sensors. 2010; 10(11):9808-9830.

Chicago/Turabian Style

MacKenzie, Robert; Fraschina, Corrado; Sannomiya, Takumi; Auzelyte, Vaida; Vörös, Janos. 2010. "Optical Sensing with Simultaneous Electrochemical Control in Metal Nanowire Arrays." Sensors 10, no. 11: 9808-9830.

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