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Diversity 2014, 6(4), 827-843; doi:10.3390/d6040827

Variations of Bacterial Community Structure and Composition in Mangrove Sediment at Different Depths in Southeastern Brazil

Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture CENA, University of São Paulo USP, Piracicaba, SP, CEP 13400-970, Brazil
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Received: 20 October 2014 / Revised: 25 November 2014 / Accepted: 1 December 2014 / Published: 11 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Conservation)
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Abstract

Tropical mangroves are considered one of the most productive ecosystems of the world, being characterized as nurseries and food sources for fish and other animals. Microorganisms play important roles in these environments, and the study of bacterial communities is of paramount importance for a better comprehension of mangrove dynamics. This study focused on the structure and composition of bacterial communities in mangrove sediments at different depths and points, located in Southeastern Brazil. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) was used to determine the community structure, and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to characterize the community composition. Redundancy analysis of T-RFLP patterns revealed differences in bacterial community structure according to soil attributes and depth. The parameters K and depth presented significant correlation with general community structure. Most sequences were classified into the phylum Proteobacteria (88%), which presented differences according to the depth, where the classes Betaproteobacteria (21%) and Deltaproteobacteria (16%) were abundant at 10 cm and Epsilonproteobacteria (35%) was abundant at 40 cm depth. Clear differences were observed in community composition as shown by the differential distribution of the phyla Firmicutes (1.13% and 3.8%, for 10 cm and 40 cm respectively), Chloroflexi (2.8% and 0.75%), and Acidobacteria (2.75% and 0.57%) according to the depth. Bacterial diversity measurements indicated higher diversity in shallow samples. Taken together, our findings indicate that mangrove holds a diverse bacterial community, which is shaped by the variations found in the ecosystem, such as sediment properties and depth. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbial ecology; T-RFLP; pyrosequencing; 16S rRNA; tropical mangrove; sediment bacterial community microbial ecology; T-RFLP; pyrosequencing; 16S rRNA; tropical mangrove; sediment bacterial community
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mendes, L.W.; Tsai, S.M. Variations of Bacterial Community Structure and Composition in Mangrove Sediment at Different Depths in Southeastern Brazil. Diversity 2014, 6, 827-843.

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