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Diversity 2010, 2(6), 932-945; doi:10.3390/d2060932
Article

Spatial Trends of Genetic Variation of Domestic Ruminants in Europe

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Received: 14 May 2010; in revised form: 1 June 2010 / Accepted: 8 June 2010 / Published: 17 June 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Diversity Assessed by Molecular Methods)
Download PDF [370 KB, updated 21 June 2010; original version uploaded 17 June 2010]
Abstract: The introduction of livestock species in Europe has been followed by various genetic events, which created a complex spatial pattern of genetic differentiation. Spatial principal component (sPCA) analysis and spatial metric multidimensional scaling (sMDS) incorporate geography in multivariate analysis. This method was applied to three microsatellite data sets for 45 goat breeds, 46 sheep breeds, and 101 cattle breeds from Europe, Southwest Asia, and India. The first two sPCA coordinates for goat and cattle, and the first sPCA coordinate of sheep, correspond to the coordinates of ordinary PCA analysis. However, higher sPCA coordinates suggest, for all three species, additional spatial structuring. The goat is the most geographically structured species, followed by cattle. For all three species, the main genetic cline is from southeast to northwest, but other geographic patterns depend on the species. We propose sPCA and sMDS to be useful tools for describing the correlation of genetic variation with geography.
Keywords: cattle; sheep; goat; diversity; spatial structure; PCA; sPCA; Multidimensional scaling; Moran’s I cattle; sheep; goat; diversity; spatial structure; PCA; sPCA; Multidimensional scaling; Moran’s I
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Laloë, D.; Moazami-Goudarzi, K.; Lenstra, J.A.; Marsan, P.A.; Azor, P.; Baumung, R.; Bradley, D.G.; Bruford, M.W.; Cañón, J.; Dolf, G.; Dunner, S.; Erhardt, G.; Hewitt, G.; Kantanen, J.; Obexer-Ruff, G.; Olsaker, I.; Rodellar, C.; Valentini, A.; Wiener, P.; European Cattle Genetic Diversity Consortium and Econogene Consortium. Spatial Trends of Genetic Variation of Domestic Ruminants in Europe. Diversity 2010, 2, 932-945.

AMA Style

Laloë D, Moazami-Goudarzi K, Lenstra JA, Marsan PA, Azor P, Baumung R, Bradley DG, Bruford MW, Cañón J, Dolf G, Dunner S, Erhardt G, Hewitt G, Kantanen J, Obexer-Ruff G, Olsaker I, Rodellar C, Valentini A, Wiener P, European Cattle Genetic Diversity Consortium and Econogene Consortium. Spatial Trends of Genetic Variation of Domestic Ruminants in Europe. Diversity. 2010; 2(6):932-945.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Laloë, Denis; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katayoun; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Azor, Pedro; Baumung, Roswitha; Bradley, Daniel G.; Bruford, Michael W.; Cañón, Javier; Dolf, Gaudenz; Dunner, Susana; Erhardt, Georg; Hewitt, Godfrey; Kantanen, Juha; Obexer-Ruff, Gabriela; Olsaker, Ingrid; Rodellar, Clemen; Valentini, Alessio; Wiener, Pamela; European Cattle Genetic Diversity Consortium and Econogene Consortium. 2010. "Spatial Trends of Genetic Variation of Domestic Ruminants in Europe." Diversity 2, no. 6: 932-945.

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