Diversity 2010, 2(2), 281-313; doi:10.3390/d2020281

Direct and Indirect Effects of Climate Change on Amphibian Populations

1,* email, 2email, 3email, 4email, 1email and 1email
Received: 10 November 2009; Accepted: 20 February 2010 / Published: 25 February 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amphibian Conservation)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, populations of many organisms are declining and species are being lost at unprecedented rates around the world. This includes many populations and species of amphibians. Although numerous factors are affecting amphibian populations, we show potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibians at the individual, population and community level. Shifts in amphibian ranges are predicted. Changes in climate may affect survival, growth, reproduction and dispersal capabilities. Moreover, climate change can alter amphibian habitats including vegetation, soil, and hydrology. Climate change can influence food availability, predator-prey relationships and competitive interactions which can alter community structure. Climate change can also alter pathogen-host dynamics and greatly influence how diseases are manifested. Changes in climate can interact with other stressors such as UV-B radiation and contaminants. The interactions among all these factors are complex and are probably driving some amphibian population declines and extinctions.
Keywords: amphibian population declines; climate change; range shifts; amphibian diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Blaustein, A.R.; Walls, S.C.; Bancroft, B.A.; Lawler, J.J.; Searle, C.L.; Gervasi, S.S. Direct and Indirect Effects of Climate Change on Amphibian Populations. Diversity 2010, 2, 281-313.

AMA Style

Blaustein AR, Walls SC, Bancroft BA, Lawler JJ, Searle CL, Gervasi SS. Direct and Indirect Effects of Climate Change on Amphibian Populations. Diversity. 2010; 2(2):281-313.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Blaustein, Andrew R.; Walls, Susan C.; Bancroft, Betsy A.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Searle, Catherine L.; Gervasi, Stephanie S. 2010. "Direct and Indirect Effects of Climate Change on Amphibian Populations." Diversity 2, no. 2: 281-313.

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