Diversity 2010, 2(1), 72-106; doi:10.3390/d2010072
Review

Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops

1,3,* email, 1,3email, 2email, 1,3email and 3email
Received: 9 November 2009; Accepted: 31 December 2009 / Published: 6 January 2010
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta), cacao (Theobroma cacao), pineapple (Ananas comosus), peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) and guaraná (Paullinia cupana), while hot peppers (Capsicum spp.), inga (Inga edulis), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) are being studied. Emergent patterns include the relationships among domestication, antiquity (terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene), origin in the periphery, ample pre-Columbian dispersal and clear phylogeographic population structure for manioc, pineapple, peach palm and, perhaps, Capsicum peppers. Cacao represents the special case of an Amazonian species possibly brought into domestication in Mesoamerica, but close scrutiny of molecular data suggests that it may also have some incipiently domesticated populations in Amazonia. Another pattern includes the relationships among species with incipiently domesticated populations or very recently domesticated populations, rapid pre- or post-conquest dispersal and lack of phylogeographic population structure, e.g., Brazil nut, cupuassu and guaraná. These patterns contrast the peripheral origin of most species with domesticated populations with the subsequent concentration of their genetic resources in the center of the basin, along the major white water rivers where high pre-conquest population densities developed. Additional molecular genetic analyses on these and other species will allow better examination of these processes and will enable us to relate them to other historical ecological patterns in Amazonia.
Keywords: molecular markers; genetic analysis; phylogeography; phylogenetics; crop dispersal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Clement, C.R.; De Cristo-Araújo, M.; Coppens D’Eeckenbrugge, G.; Alves Pereira, A.; Picanço-Rodrigues, D. Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops. Diversity 2010, 2, 72-106.

AMA Style

Clement CR, De Cristo-Araújo M, Coppens D’Eeckenbrugge G, Alves Pereira A, Picanço-Rodrigues D. Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops. Diversity. 2010; 2(1):72-106.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Clement, Charles R.; De Cristo-Araújo, Michelly; Coppens D’Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Alves Pereira, Alessandro; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane. 2010. "Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops." Diversity 2, no. 1: 72-106.

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