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Protein Folding and Misfolding on Surfaces
Department of Biochemical Sciences and Research Centre on the Molecular Basis of Neurodegeneration (CIMN), University of Florence, Florence, Italy
Received: 6 November 2008; in revised form: 3 December 2008 / Accepted: 8 December 2008 / Published: 10 December 2008
Abstract: Protein folding, misfolding and aggregation, as well as the way misfolded and aggregated proteins affects cell viability are emerging as key themes in molecular and structural biology and in molecular medicine. Recent advances in the knowledge of the biophysical basis of protein folding have led to propose the energy landscape theory which provides a consistent framework to better understand how a protein folds rapidly and efficiently to the compact, biologically active structure. The increased knowledge on protein folding has highlighted its strict relation to protein misfolding and aggregation, either process being in close competition with the other, both relying on the same physicochemical basis. The theory has also provided information to better understand the structural and environmental factors affecting protein folding resulting in protein misfolding and aggregation into ordered or disordered polymeric assemblies. Among these, particular importance is given to the effects of surfaces. The latter, in some cases make possible rapid and efficient protein folding but most often recruit proteins/peptides increasing their local concentration thus favouring misfolding and accelerating the rate of nucleation. It is also emerging that surfaces can modify the path of protein misfolding and aggregation generating oligomers and polymers structurally different from those arising in the bulk solution and endowed with different physical properties and cytotoxicities.
Keywords: Protein folding; protein misfolding; protein aggregation; amyloid; amyloid fibrils; amyloid cytotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Stefani, M. Protein Folding and Misfolding on Surfaces. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9, 2515-2542.
Stefani M. Protein Folding and Misfolding on Surfaces. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2008; 9(12):2515-2542.
Stefani, Massimo. 2008. "Protein Folding and Misfolding on Surfaces." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 9, no. 12: 2515-2542.