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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2007, 8(11), 1177-1195; doi:10.3390/i8111177
Article

The Signaling Cascades of Ginkgolide B-Induced Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

Received: 12 November 2007; in revised form: 16 November 2007 / Accepted: 21 November 2007 / Published: 27 November 2007
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds for Cancer Treatment and Prevention)
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Abstract: Ginkgolide B, the major active component of Ginkgo biloba extracts, can bothstimulate and inhibit apoptotic signaling. Here, we demonstrate that ginkgolide B caninduce the production of reactive oxygen species in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, leading toan increase in the intracellular concentrations of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ and nitric oxide(NO), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), activation of caspase-9 and -3,and increase the mRNA expression levels of p53 and p21, which are known to be involvedin apoptotic signaling. In addition, prevention of ROS generation by pretreatment withN-acetyl cysteine (NAC) could effectively block intracellular Ca2+ concentrationsincreases and apoptosis in ginkgolide B-treated MCF-7 cells. Moreover, pretreatment withnitric oxide (NO) scavengers could inhibit ginkgolide B-induced MMP change andsequent apoptotic processes. Overall, our results signify that both ROS and NO playedimportant roles in ginkgolide B-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Based on these studyresults, we propose a model for ginkgolide B-induced cell apoptosis signaling cascades inMCF-7 cells.
Keywords: Ginkgolide; Apoptosis; Oxidative Stress; Nitric oxide Ginkgolide; Apoptosis; Oxidative Stress; Nitric oxide
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chan, W.-H. The Signaling Cascades of Ginkgolide B-Induced Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2007, 8, 1177-1195.

AMA Style

Chan W-H. The Signaling Cascades of Ginkgolide B-Induced Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2007; 8(11):1177-1195.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chan, Wen-Hsiung. 2007. "The Signaling Cascades of Ginkgolide B-Induced Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 8, no. 11: 1177-1195.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert