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Effect of Antioxidant (Turmeric, Turmerin and Curcumin) on Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Department of Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA
Faculty of Medicine and Division of Infectious Diseases, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2002; Accepted: 30 October 2002 / Published: 31 January 2003
Abstract: Oxidative stress is implicated in HIV-infection. It has been suggested that plant antioxidants may offer protection from viral replication and cell death associated with oxidative stress in patients with HIV/AIDS. Because of inherent antioxidant properties of turmeric (T) and its derivatives, water-soluble extract turmerin (Tm) and lipid soluble curcumin (Cu), their potential efficacy as anti-HIV drugs were examined. Cell viability and p-24 antigen release by CEMss-T cells (1 x 105 cells/ml) infected with HIV-IIIB strain, used as an acute model of infection, were tested in the presence of 3’azido-3’deoxythmidine (AZT). Proliferative responses of human mononuclear cells derived from HIV patients (chronic model) stimulated with phyohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (ConA), and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) were also examined in the presence of AZT and Tm. In the infection assay, T, Tm and Cu individually did not reduce p-24 antigen release or improve cell viability. AZT (5μM) + Tm (800 ng/ml) inhibited infection by 37 % and increased cell numbers by 30%; whereas, Tm (80 ng/ml) inhibited infection by 26% and increased cell number by 60%. In the proliferation assay, lymphocytes from HIV-infected patients showed better inhibition of mitogen responsiveness to Tm (800 ng/ml) when compared to AZT at 5 μM or Tm at 80 ng/ml. Turmerin inhibited HIV-infected T-cell proliferation and, in combination with AZT, decreased T-cell infection and increased cell viability. These data provide evidence suggesting that efficacious anti-HIV therapy may be possible using lower, less toxic doses of AZT in the presence of turmerin.
Keywords: Turmeric; turmerin; curcumin; p-24 antigen; proliferation
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MDPI and ACS Style
Cohly, H.H.P.; Asad, S.; Das, S.K.; Angel, M.F.; Rao, M. Effect of Antioxidant (Turmeric, Turmerin and Curcumin) on Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2003, 4, 22-33.
Cohly HHP, Asad S, Das SK, Angel MF, Rao M. Effect of Antioxidant (Turmeric, Turmerin and Curcumin) on Human Immunodeficiency Virus. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2003; 4(2):22-33.
Cohly, H. H.P.; Asad, S.; Das, S. K.; Angel, M. F.; Rao, M. 2003. "Effect of Antioxidant (Turmeric, Turmerin and Curcumin) on Human Immunodeficiency Virus." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 4, no. 2: 22-33.