Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2003, 4(1), 13-21; doi:10.3390/i4010013
Article

Cytotoxicity and Proliferation Studies with Arsenic in Established Human Cell Lines: Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Dendritic Cells, Dermal Fibroblasts, Microvascular Endothelial Cells, Monocytes and T-Cells

1 Molecular Toxicology Research Laboratory, NIH-Center for Environmental Health, School of Science and Technology, Jackson State University, Box 18540, Jackson, MS 39217, USA 2 Department of Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2002; Accepted: 30 October 2002 / Published: 30 January 2003
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Abstract: Based on the hypothesis that arsenic exposure results in toxicity and mitogenecity, this study examined the dose-response of arsenic in established human cell lines of keratinocytes (HaCaT), melanocytes (1675), dendritic cells (THP-1/A23187), dermal fibroblasts (CRL1904), microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC), monocytes (THP-1), and T cells (Jurkat). Cytotoxicity was determined by incubating THP-1, THP-1+ A23187 and JKT cells in RPMI 1640, 1675 in Vitacell, HMEC in EBM, and dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT in DMEM with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% streptomycin and penicillin for 72 hrs in 96-well microtiter plates, at 37oC in a 5% CO2 incubator with different concentrations of arsenic using fluorescein diacetate (FDA). Cell proliferation in 96-well plates was determined in cultured cells starved by prior incubation for 24 hrs in 1% FBS and exposed for 72 hours, using the 96 cell titer proliferation solution (Promega) assay. Cytotoxicity assays yielded LD50s of 9 μg/mL for HaCaT, 1.5 μg/mL for CRL 1675, 1.5 μg/mL for dendritic cells, 37 μg/mL for dermal fibroblasts, 0.48 μg/mL for HMEC, 50 μg/mL for THP-1 cells and 50 μg/mL for JKT-T cells. The peak proliferation was observed at 6 μg/mL for HaCaT and THP-1 cells, 0.19 μg/mL for CRL 1675, dendritic cells, and HMEC, and 1.5 μg/mL for dermal fibroblasts and Jurkat T cells. These results show that arsenic is toxic at high doses to keratinocytes, fibroblasts, monocytes and T cells, and toxic at lower doses to melanocytes, microvascular endothelial cells and dendritic cells. Proliferation studies showed sub-lethal doses of arsenic to be mitogenic.
Keywords: Arsenic; cytotoxicity; mitogenicity; skin cells

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MDPI and ACS Style

Graham-Evans, B.; Tchounwou, P.B.; Cohly, H.H.P. Cytotoxicity and Proliferation Studies with Arsenic in Established Human Cell Lines: Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Dendritic Cells, Dermal Fibroblasts, Microvascular Endothelial Cells, Monocytes and T-Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2003, 4, 13-21.

AMA Style

Graham-Evans B, Tchounwou PB, Cohly HHP. Cytotoxicity and Proliferation Studies with Arsenic in Established Human Cell Lines: Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Dendritic Cells, Dermal Fibroblasts, Microvascular Endothelial Cells, Monocytes and T-Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2003; 4(1):13-21.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Graham-Evans, Barbara; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Cohly, Hari H.P. 2003. "Cytotoxicity and Proliferation Studies with Arsenic in Established Human Cell Lines: Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Dendritic Cells, Dermal Fibroblasts, Microvascular Endothelial Cells, Monocytes and T-Cells." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 4, no. 1: 13-21.

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