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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2671; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092671

Biocatalysis of Platycoside E and Platycodin D3 Using Fungal Extracellular β-Glucosidase Responsible for Rapid Platycodin D Production

1
Department of Food and Nutrition, Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Center for Human and Environmental Microbiome, Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
3
Department of Hotel Culinary Arts, Yeonsung University, Anyang 14001, Korea
4
Fermentation Science Program, School of Agriculture, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA
5
Research Center, BIFIDO Co., Ltd., Hongcheon 25117, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Platycodi radix (i.e., Platycodon grandiflorum root) products (e.g., tea, cosmetics, and herbal supplements) are popular in East Asian nutraceutical markets due to their reported health benefits and positive consumer perceptions. Platycosides are the key drivers of Platycodi radixes’ biofunctional effects; their nutraceutical and pharmaceutical activities are primarily related to the number and varieties of sugar side-chains. Among the various platycosides, platycodin D is a major saponin that demonstrates various nutraceutical activities. Therefore, the development of a novel technology to increase the total platycodin D content in Platycodi radix extract is important, not only for consumers’ health benefits but also producers’ commercial applications and manufacturing cost reduction. It has been reported that hydrolysis of platycoside sugar moieties significantly modifies the compound’s biofunctionality. Platycodi radix extract naturally contains two major platycodin D precursors (platycoside E and platycodin D3) which can be enzymatically converted to platycodin D via β-d-glucosidase hydrolysis. Despite evidence that platycodin D precursors can be changed to platycodin D in the Platycodi radix plant, there is little research on increasing platycodin D concentrations during processing. In this work, platycodin D levels in Platycodi radix extracts were significantly increased via extracellular Aspergillus usamii β-d-glucosidase (n = 3, p < 0.001). To increase the extracellular β-d-glucosidase activity, A. usamii was cultivated in a culture media containing cellobiose as its major carbon source. The optimal pH and temperature of the fungal β-d-glucosidase were 6.0 and 40.0 °C, respectively. Extracellular A. usamii β-d-glucosidase successfully converted more than 99.9% (w/v, n = 3, p < 0.001) of platycoside E and platycodin D3 into platycodin D within 2 h under optimal conditions. The maximum level of platycodin D was 0.4 mM. Following the biotransformation process, the platycodin D was recovered using preparatory High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and applied to in vitro assays to evaluate its quality. Platycodin D separated from the Platycodi radix immediately following the bioconversion process showed significant anti-inflammatory effects from the Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage inflammatory responses with decreased nitrite and IL-6 production (n = 3, p < 0.001). Taken together, these results provide evidence that biocatalysis of Platycodi radix extracts with A. usamii may be used as an efficient method of platycodin D-enriched extract production and novel Platycodi radix products may thereby be created. View Full-Text
Keywords: platycodi radix; platycodon grandiflorum; biotransformation; biocatalysis; aspergillus usamii; β-glucosidase; phytochemicals; platycoside E; platycodin D3; platycodin D platycodi radix; platycodon grandiflorum; biotransformation; biocatalysis; aspergillus usamii; β-glucosidase; phytochemicals; platycoside E; platycodin D3; platycodin D
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Ahn, H.J.; You, H.J.; Park, M.S.; Johnston, T.V.; Ku, S.; Ji, G.E. Biocatalysis of Platycoside E and Platycodin D3 Using Fungal Extracellular β-Glucosidase Responsible for Rapid Platycodin D Production. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2671.

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