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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092668

Clinical and Biological Characterization of Skin Pigmentation Diversity and Its Consequences on UV Impact

L’Oréal Research and Innovation, 1 avenue Eugène Schueller, 93601 Aulnay-sous-Bois, France
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Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melanins and Melanogenesis: From Nature to Applications)
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Abstract

Skin color diversity is the most variable and noticeable phenotypic trait in humans resulting from constitutive pigmentation variability. This paper will review the characterization of skin pigmentation diversity with a focus on the most recent data on the genetic basis of skin pigmentation, and the various methodologies for skin color assessment. Then, melanocyte activity and amount, type and distribution of melanins, which are the main drivers for skin pigmentation, are described. Paracrine regulators of melanocyte microenvironment are also discussed. Skin response to sun exposure is also highly dependent on color diversity. Thus, sensitivity to solar wavelengths is examined in terms of acute effects such as sunburn/erythema or induced-pigmentation but also long-term consequences such as skin cancers, photoageing and pigmentary disorders. More pronounced sun-sensitivity in lighter or darker skin types depending on the detrimental effects and involved wavelengths is reviewed. View Full-Text
Keywords: constitutive skin pigmentation; phototype; melanocyte; UV sensitivity; pigmentary disorders constitutive skin pigmentation; phototype; melanocyte; UV sensitivity; pigmentary disorders
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Del Bino, S.; Duval, C.; Bernerd, F. Clinical and Biological Characterization of Skin Pigmentation Diversity and Its Consequences on UV Impact. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2668.

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