Next Article in Journal
Identification of Novel Quantitative Trait Loci Linked to Crown Rot Resistance in Spring Wheat
Next Article in Special Issue
Clinical and Biological Characterization of Skin Pigmentation Diversity and Its Consequences on UV Impact
Previous Article in Journal
Selenium-Related Transcriptional Regulation of Gene Expression
Previous Article in Special Issue
Conjugation with Dihydrolipoic Acid Imparts Caffeic Acid Ester Potent Inhibitory Effect on Dopa Oxidase Activity of Human Tyrosinase
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2667; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092667

MC1R: Front and Center in the Bright Side of Dark Eumelanin and DNA Repair

Department of Dermatology, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melanins and Melanogenesis: From Nature to Applications)
Full-Text   |   PDF [814 KB, uploaded 8 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Melanin, the pigment produced by specialized cells, melanocytes, is responsible for skin and hair color. Skin pigmentation is an important protective mechanism against the DNA damaging and mutagenic effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV). It is acknowledged that exposure to UV is the main etiological environmental factor for all forms of skin cancer, including melanoma. DNA repair capacity is another major factor that determines the risk for skin cancer. Human melanocytes synthesize eumelanin, the dark brown form of melanin, as well as pheomelanin, which is reddish-yellow in color. The relative rates of eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis by melanocytes determine skin color and the sensitivity of skin to the drastic effects of solar UV. Understanding the complex regulation of melanocyte function and how it responds to solar UV has a huge impact on developing novel photoprotective strategies to prevent skin cancer, particularly melanoma, the most fatal form, which originates from melanocytes. This review provides an overview of the known differences in the photoprotective effects of eumelanin versus pheomelanin, how these two forms of melanin are regulated genetically and biochemically, and their impact on the DNA damaging effects of UV exposure. Additionally, this review briefly discusses the role of paracrine factors, focusing on α-melanocortin (α-melanocyte stimulating hormone; α-MSH), in regulating melanogenesis and the response of melanocytes to UV, and describes a chemoprevention strategy based on targeting the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) by analogs of its physiological agonist α-MSH. View Full-Text
Keywords: human melanocytes; eumelanin; pheomelanin; photoprotection; melanocortin 1 receptor; paracrine factors; DNA repair human melanocytes; eumelanin; pheomelanin; photoprotection; melanocortin 1 receptor; paracrine factors; DNA repair
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Swope, V.B.; Abdel-Malek, Z.A. MC1R: Front and Center in the Bright Side of Dark Eumelanin and DNA Repair. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2667.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top