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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1992; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071992

In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation: Efficacy of Cannabigerol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid

1
IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino Pulejo”, 98124 Messina, Italy
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Eastern Piedmont “Amedeo Avogadro”, 28100 Novara, Italy
3
Research Centre for Industrial Crops, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA-CIN), 45100 Rovigo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 8 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Natural Products for Human Health)
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Abstract

Inflammation and oxidative stress play main roles in neurodegeneration. Interestingly, different natural compounds may be able to exert neuroprotective actions against inflammation and oxidative stress, protecting from neuronal cell loss. Among these natural sources, Cannabis sativa represents a reservoir of compounds exerting beneficial properties, including cannabigerol (CBG), whose antioxidant properties have already been demonstrated in macrophages. Here, we aimed to evaluate the ability of CBG to protect NSC-34 motor neurons against the toxicity induced from the medium of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Using MTT assay, we observed that CBG pre-treatment was able to reduce the loss of cell viability induced by the medium of LPS-stimulated macrophages in NSC-34 cells. Indeed, CBG pre-treatment inhibited apoptosis, as shown by the reduction of caspase 3 activation and Bax expression, while Bcl-2 levels increased. Furthermore, CBG pre-treatment counteracted not only inflammation, as demonstrated by the reduction of IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ and PPARγ protein levels assessed by immunocytochemistry, but also oxidative stress in NSC-34 cells treated with the medium of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. Indeed, immunocytochemistry showed that CBG pre-treatment reduced nitrotyrosine, SOD1 and iNOS protein levels and restored Nrf-2 levels. All together, these results indicated the neuroprotective effects of CBG, that may be a potential treatment against neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: cannabigerol; Cannabis sativa; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress; phytocannabinoid cannabigerol; Cannabis sativa; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress; phytocannabinoid
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Gugliandolo, A.; Pollastro, F.; Grassi, G.; Bramanti, P.; Mazzon, E. In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation: Efficacy of Cannabigerol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1992.

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